Project Management

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A

Accept (risk response)

A risk response to a threat where a conscious and deliberate decision is taken to retain the threat, having discerned that it is more economical to do so than to attempt a risk response action. The threat should continue to be monitored to ensure that it remains tolerable.

Acceptance criteria

A prioritized list of criteria that the project product must meet before the customer will accept it, i.e. measurable definitions of the attributes required for the set of products to be acceptable to key stakeholders. – A set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are accepted.

Acceptance

The formal act of acknowledging that the project has met agreed acceptance criteria and thereby met the requirements of its stakeholders.

Accepted Deliverables

Products, results, or capabilities produced by a project and validated by the project customer or sponsors as meeting their specified acceptance criteria.

Accuracy

Within the quality management system, accuracy is an assessment of correctness.

Acquire Project Team

The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project activities.

Acquisition

Obtaining human and material resources necessary to perform project activities. Acquisition implies a cost of resources, and is not necessarily financial.

Activity Attributes

Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.

Activity Code

One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports.

Activity Cost Estimates

The projected cost of the schedule activity that includes the cost for all resources required to perform and complete the activity, including all cost types and cost components.

Activity Duration Estimate

A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome for the duration of an activity.

Activity Duration

The time in calendar units between the start and finish of a schedule activity.

Activity Identifier

A short, unique numeric or text identification assigned to each schedule activity to differentiate that project activity from other activities. Typically unique within any one project schedule network diagram.

Activity List

A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.

Activity Network Diagrams

A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities.

Activity Resource Requirements

The types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.

Activity

A distinct, scheduled portion of work performed during the course of a project. – A process, function or task that occurs over time, has recognizable results and is managed. It is usually defined as part of a process or plan.

Activity-on-Node (AON)

A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.

Actual Cost (AC)

The realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity during a specific time period.

Actual Duration

The time in calendar units between the actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete.

Adaptive Life Cycle

A project life cycle, also known as change-driven or agile methods, that is intended to facilitate change and require a high degree of ongoing stakeholder involvement. Adaptive life cycles are also iterative and incremental, but differ in that iterations are very rapid (usually 2–4 weeks in length) and are fixed in time and resources.

Additional Quality Planning Tools

A set of tools used to define the quality requirements and to plan effective quality management activities. They include, but are not limited to: brainstorming, force field analysis, nominal group techniques and quality management and control tools.

Adjusting Leads and Lags

A technique used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with plan during project execution.

Advertising

The process of calling public attention to a project or effort.

Affinity Diagram

A group creativity technique that allows large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.

Agile methods

Principally, software development methods that apply the project approach of using short time boxed iterations where products are incrementally developed.

Agreements

Any document or communication that defines the initial intentions of a project. This can take the form of a contract, memorandum of understanding (MOU), letters of agreement, verbal agreements, email, etc.

Alternative Analysis

A technique used to evaluate identified options in order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project.

Alternatives Generation

A technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.

Analogous Estimating

A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.

Analytical Techniques

Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.

Application Area

A category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product (i.e., by similar technologies or production methods) or the type of customer (i.e., internal versus external, government versus commercial) or industry sector (i.e., utilities, automotive, aerospace, information technologies, etc.). Application areas can overlap.

Applying Leads and Lags

A technique that is used to adjust the amount of time between predecessor and successor activities.

Apportioned Effort

An activity where effort is allotted proportionately across certain discrete efforts and not divisible into discrete efforts. [Note: Apportioned effort is one of three earned value management (EVM) types of activities used to measure work performance.]

Approval

The formal confirmation that a product is complete and meets its requirements (less any concessions) as defined by its Product Description.

Approved Change Request

A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved.

Approved Change Requests Review

A review of the change requests to verify that these were implemented as approved.

Approver

The person or group (e.g. a Project Board) who is identified as qualified and authorized to approve a (management or specialist) product as being complete and fit for purpose.

Assumption

A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or certain, without proof or demonstration. – A statement that is taken as being true for the purposes of planning, but which could change later. An assumption is made where some facts are not yet known or decided, and is usually reserved for matters of such significance that, if they change or turn out not to be true, there will need to be considerable re-planning.

Assumptions Analysis

A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.

Assurance

All the systematic actions necessary to provide confidence that the target (system, process, organization, programme, project, outcome, benefit, capability, product output, deliverable) is appropriate. Appropriateness might be defined subjectively or objectively in different circumstances. The implication is that assurance will have a level of independence from that which is being assured.

Attribute Sampling

Method of measuring quality that consists of noting the presence (or absence) of some characteristic (attribute) in each of the units under consideration. After each unit is inspected, the decision is made to accept a lot, reject it, or inspect another unit.

Authority

The right to allocate resources and make decisions (applies to project, stage and team levels). – The right to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions, or give approvals.

Authorization

The point at which an authority is granted.

Avoid (risk response)

A risk response to a threat where the threat either can no longer have an impact or can no longer happen.

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B

Backlog

A listing of product requirements and deliverables to be completed, written as stories, and prioritized by the business to manage and organize the project’s work.

Backward Pass

A critical path method technique for calculating the late start and late finish dates by working backward through the schedule model from the project end date.

Bar Chart

A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, schedule activities or work breakdown structure components are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars.

Baseline

Management product A type of management product that defines aspects of the project and, once approved, is subject to change control. – Reference levels against which an entity is monitored and controlled. – The approved version of a work product that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.

Basis of Estimates

Supporting documentation outlining the details used in establishing project estimates such as assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges, and confidence levels.

Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.

Benefit

The measurable improvement resulting from an outcome perceived as an advantage by one or more stakeholders.

Benefits Review Plan

A plan that defines how and when a measurement of the achievement of the project’s benefits can be made. If the project is being managed within a programme, this information may be created and maintained at the programme level.

Benefits tolerance

The permissible deviation in the expected benefit that is allowed before the deviation needs to be escalated to the next level of management. Benefits tolerance is documented in the Business Case.

Bidder Conference

The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor conferences, or pre-bid conferences.

Bottom-Up Estimating

A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).

Brainstorming

A general data gathering and creativity technique that can be used to identify risks, ideas, or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject matter experts.

Budget at Completion (BAC)

The sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed.

Budget

The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity.

Buffer. (Management Reserve)

An amount of the project budget withheld for management control purposes. These are budgets reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. The management reserve is not included in the performance measurement baseline (PMB). (Contingency Reserve) Budget within the cost baseline or performance measurement baseline that is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigating responses are developed.

Business Case

A documented economic feasibility study used to establish validity of the benefits of a selected component lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities. – The justification for an organizational activity (project), which typically contains costs, benefits, risks and timescales, and against which continuing viability is tested.

Business Value

A concept that is unique to each organization and includes tangible and intangible elements. Through the effective use of project, program, and portfolio management disciplines, organizations will possess the ability to employ reliable, established processes to meet enterprise objectives and obtain greater business value from their investments.

Buyer

The acquirer of products, services, or results for an organization.

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C

Cause and Effect Diagram

A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesirable effect back to its root cause.

Central Tendency

A property of the central limit theorem predicting that the data observations in a distribution will tend to group around a central location. The three typical measures of central tendency are the mean, median, and mode.

Centre of excellence

A corporate coordinating function for portfolios, programmes and projects providing standards, consistency of methods and processes, knowledge management, assurance and training.

Change Authority

A person or group to which the Project Board may delegate responsibility for the consideration of requests for change or off specifications. The Change Authority may be given a change budget and can approve changes within that budget.

Change budget

The money allocated to the Change Authority available to be spent on authorized requests for change.

Change Control Board (CCB)

A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions.

Change Control System

A set of procedures that describes how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled.

Change Control Tools

Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.

Change Control

A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or rejected. – The procedure that ensures that all changes that may affect the project agreed objectives are identified, assessed and either approved, rejected or deferred.

Change Log

A comprehensive list of changes made during the project. This typically includes dates of the change and impacts in terms of time, cost, and risk.

Change Request

A formal proposal to modify any document, deliverable, or baseline.

Checklist Analysis

A technique for systematically reviewing materials using a list for accuracy and completeness.

Checkpoint Report

A progress report of the information gathered at a checkpoint, which is given by a team to the Project Manager and which provides reporting data as defined in the Work Package.

Checkpoint

A team-level, time-driven review of progress.

Check Sheets

A tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data.

Claim

A request, demand, or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer, or vice versa, for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract, such as for a disputed change.

Claims Administration

The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.

Close Procurements

The process of completing each project procurement.

Close Project or Phase

The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete a project or phase.

Closed Procurement

Project contracts or other procurement agreements that have been formally acknowledged by the proper authorizing agent as being finalized and signed off.

Closing Process Group

Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close a project or phase.

Closure notification

Advice from the Project Board to inform all stakeholders and the host sites that the project resources can be disbanded and support services, such as space, equipment and access, demobilized. It should indicate a closure date for costs to be charged to the project.

Closure recommendation

A recommendation prepared by the Project Manager for the Project Board to send as a project closure notification when the board is satisfied that the project can be closed.

Code of Accounts

A numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure (WBS).

Collect Requirements

The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.

Colocation

An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.

Communication Constraints

Restrictions on the content, timing, audience, or individual who will deliver a communication usually stemming from specific legislation or regulation, technology, or organizational policies.

Communication Management Strategy

A description of the means and frequency of communication between the project and the project’s stakeholders.

Communication Methods

A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.

Communication Models

A description, analogy or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.

Communication Requirements Analysis

An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.

Communication Technology

Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.

Communications Management Plan

A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated.

Compliance

A general concept of conforming to a rule, standard, law, or requirement such that the assessment of compliance results in a binomial result stated as “compliant” or “noncompliant.”

Concession

An off-specification that is accepted by the Project Board without corrective action.

Conduct Procurements

The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.

Configuration Item Record

A record that describes the status, version and variant of a configuration item, and any details of important relationships between them.

Configuration item

An entity that is subject to configuration management. The entity may be a component of a product, a product, or a set of products in a release.

Configuration Management Strategy

A description of how and by whom the project’s products will be controlled and protected.

Configuration Management System

A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes. – The set of processes, tools and databases that are used to manage configuration data. Typically, a project will use the configuration management system of either the customer or supplier organization.

Configuration management

Technical and administrative activities concerned with the creation, maintenance and controlled change of configuration throughout the life of a product.

Conflict Management

Handling, controlling, and guiding a conflictual situation to achieve a resolution.

Conformance Work

In the cost of quality framework, conformance work is done to compensate for imperfections that prevent organizations from completing planned activities correctly as essential first-time work. Conformance work consists of actions that are related to prevention and inspection.

Conformance

Within the quality management system, conformance is a general concept of delivering results that fall within the limits that define acceptable variation for a quality requirement.

Constraint

A limiting factor that affects the execution of a project, program, portfolio, or process.

Constraints

The restrictions or limitations that the project is bound by.

Context Diagrams

A visual depiction of the product scope showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it.

Contingency Allowance (Contingency Reserve)

Budget within the cost baseline or performance measurement baseline that is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigating responses are developed.

Contingency Reserve

Budget within the cost baseline or performance measurement baseline that is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigating responses are developed.

Contingency

An event or occurrence that could affect the execution of the project that may be accounted for with a reserve. – Something that is held in reserve typically to handle time and cost variances, or risks.

Contingent Response Strategies

Responses provided which may be used in the event that a specific trigger occurs

Contract Change Control System

The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.

Contract

A contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.

Control

Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.

Control Account

A management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement.

Control Chart

A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, which has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.

Control Communications

The process of monitoring and controlling communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met.

Control Costs

The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline.

Control Limits

The area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline or mean of a normal distribution of data plotted on a control chart, which reflects the expected variation in the data.

Control Procurements

The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate.

Control Quality

The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.

Control Risks

The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.

Control Schedule

The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.

Control Scope

The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.

Control Stakeholder Engagement

The process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders.

Corporate or programme standards

These are over-arching standards that the project must adhere to. They will influence the four project strategies (Communication Management Strategy, Configuration Management Strategy, Quality Management Strategy and Risk Management Strategy) and the project controls.

Corrective action

A set of actions to resolve a threat to a plan’s tolerances or a defect in a product. – An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan.

Cost Aggregation

Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project’s WBS or for a given cost control account.

Cost Baseline

The approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.

Cost Management Plan

A component of a project or program management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled.

Cost of Quality

A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

A measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.

Cost Plus Award Fee Contracts (CPAF)

A category of contract that involves payments to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus an award fee representing seller profit.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract (CPFF)

A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).

Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract (CPIF)

A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.

Cost tolerance

The permissible deviation in a plan’s cost that is allowed before the deviation needs to be escalated to the next level of management. Cost tolerance is documented in the respective plan.

Cost Variance (CV)

The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time, expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.

Cost-Reimbursable Contract

A type of contract involving payment to the seller for the seller’s actual costs, plus a fee typically representing seller’s profit. Cost-reimbursable contracts often include incentive clauses where, if the seller meets or exceeds selected project objectives, such as schedule targets or total cost, then the seller receives from the buyer an incentive or bonus payment.

Crashing

A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources.

Create WBS

The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.

Criteria

Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based or by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.

Critical Chain Method

A schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.

Critical Path Activity

Any activity on the critical path in a project schedule.

Critical Path Method

A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.

Critical Path

The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible duration.

Customer Satisfaction

Within the quality management system, a state of fulfillment in which the needs of a customer are met or exceeded for the customer’s expected experiences as assessed by the customer at the moment of evaluation.

Customer

Customer is the person(s) or organization(s) that will pay for the project’s product, service, or result. Customers can be internal or external to the performing organization. The person or group who commissioned the work and will benefit from the end results.

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D

Daily Log

Used to record problems/concerns that can be handled by the Project Manager informally.

Data Date

A point in time when the status of the project is recorded.

Data Gathering and Representation Techniques

Techniques used to collect, organize, and present data and information.

Decision Tree Analysis

A diagramming and calculation technique for evaluating the implications of a chain of multiple options in the presence of uncertainty.

Decomposition

A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.

Defect Repair

An intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component.

Defect

An imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced.

Define Activities

The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.

Define Scope

The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.

Deliverable

(Out put) A specialist product that is handed over to a user(s). Note that management products are not outputs but are created solely for the purpose of managing the project. – Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.

Delphi Technique

An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. Experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. The responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome.

Dependencies (plan)

The relationship between products or activities. For example, the development of Product C cannot start until Products A and B have been completed. Dependencies can be internal or external. Internal dependencies are those under the control of the Project Manager. External dependencies are those outside the control of the Project Manager – for example, the delivery of a product required by this project from another project.

Dependency Determination

A technique used to identify the type of dependency that is used to create the logical relationships between predecessor and successor activities.

Dependency (Logical Relationship)

A dependency between two activities, or between an activity and a milestone.

Design of Experiments

A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.

Determine Budget

The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.

Develop Project Charter

The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

Develop Project Management Plan

The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.

Develop Project Team

The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.

Develop Schedule

The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.

Diagramming Techniques

Approaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding.

Dictatorship

A group decision-making technique in which one individual makes the decision for the group.

Direct and Manage Project Work

The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.

Dis-benefit

An outcome that is perceived as negative by one or more stakeholders. It is an actual consequence of an activity whereas, by definition, a risk has some uncertainty about whether it will materialize.

Discrete Effort

An activity that can be planned and measured and that yields a specific output. [Note: Discrete effort is one of three earned value management (EVM) types of activities used to measure work performance.]

Discretionary Dependency

A relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired.

Document Analysis

An elicitation technique that analyzes existing documentation and identifies information relevant to the requirements.

Documentation Reviews.

The process of gathering a corpus of information and reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness.

DSDM Atern

An agile project delivery framework developed and owned by the DSDM consortium. Atern uses a time-boxed and iterative approach to product development and is compatible with PRINCE2.

Duration (DU or DUR)

The total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with effort.

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E

Early Finish Date (EF)

In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints.

Early Start Date (ES)

In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints.

Earned Value (EV)

The measure of work performed expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work.

Earned Value Management

A methodology that combines scope, schedule, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress.

Effort

The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component, often expressed in hours, days, or weeks.

Embedding (PRINCE2)

What an organization needs to do to adopt PRINCE2 as its corporate project management method.

Emotional Intelligence

The capability to identify, assess, and manage the personal emotions of oneself and othe people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of people.

End Project Report

A report given by the Project Manager to the Project Board that confirms the handover of all products and provides an updated Business Case and an assessment of how well the project has done against the original Project Initiation Documentation.

End stage assessment

The review by the Project Board and Project Manager of the End Stage Report to decide whether to approve the next Stage Plan. According to the size and criticality of the project, the review may be formal or informal. The authority to proceed should be documented as a formal record.

End Stage Report

A report given by the Project Manager to the Project Board at the end of each management stage of the project. This provides information about the project performance during the stage and the project status at stage end.

Enhance (risk response)

A risk response to an opportunity where proactive actions are taken to enhance both the probability of the event occurring and the impact of the event should it occur.

Enterprise Environmental Factors

Conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or portfolio.

Estimate Activity Duration

The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.

Estimate Activity Resources

The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.

Estimate at Completion (EAC)

The expected total cost of completing all work expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete.

Estimate Costs

The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.

Estimate to Complete (ETC)

The expected cost to finish all the remaining project work.

Estimate

A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project costs, resources, effort, and durations and is usually preceded by a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order of magnitude, definitive). It should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., } x percent).

Event-driven control

A control that takes place when a specific event occurs. This could be, for example, the end of a stage, the completion of the Project Initiation Documentation, or the creation of an Exception Report. It could also include organizational events that may affect the project, such as the end of the financial year.

Exception assessment

This is a review by the Project Board to approve (or reject) an Exception Plan.

Exception Plan

This is a plan that often follows an Exception Report. For a Stage Plan exception, it covers the period from the present to the end of the current stage. If the exception were at project level, the Project Plan would be replaced.

Exception Report

A description of the exception situation, its impact, options, recommendation and impact of the recommendation. This report is prepared by the Project Manager for the Project Board.

Exception

A situation where it can be forecast that there will be a deviation beyond the tolerance levels agreed between Project Manager and Project Board (or between Project Board and corporate or programme management).

Execute

Directing, managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work; providing the deliverables; and providing work performance information.

Executing Process Group

Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.

Executive

The single individual with overall responsibility for ensuring that a project meets its objectives and delivers the projected benefits. This individual should ensure that the project maintains its business focus, that it has clear authority, and that the work, including risks, is actively managed. The Executive is the chair of the Project Board. He or she represents the customer and is responsible for the Business Case.

Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis

A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. A common use of this technique is within decision tree analysis.

Expert Judgment

Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc., as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.

Exploit (risk response)

A risk response to an opportunity by seizing the opportunity to ensure that it will happen and that the impact will be realized.

External Dependency

A relationship between project activities and non-project activities.

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F

Facilitated Workshops

An elicitation technique using focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements.

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

An analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode in every component of a product is analyzed to determine its effect on the reliability of that component and, by itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the required function of the component; or the examination of a product (at the system and/or lower levels) for all ways that a failure may occur. For each potential failure, an estimate is made of its effect on the total system and of its impact. In addition, a review is undertaken of the action planned to minimize the probability of failure and to minimize its effects.

Fallback (risk response)

A risk response to a threat by putting in place a fallback plan for the actions that will be taken to reduce the impact of the threat should the risk occur.

Fallback Plan

Fallback plans include an alternative set of actions and tasks available in the event that the primary

Fast Tracking

A schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration.

Fee

Represents profit as a component of compensation to a seller.

Finish Date

A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target or current.

Finish-to-Finish (FF)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished.

Finish-to-Start (FS)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished.

Firm-Fixed-Price Contract (FFP)

A type of fixed price contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), regardless of the seller’s costs.

Fishbone diagram.(Cause and Effect Diagram)

A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesirable effect back to its root cause.

Fixed Formula Method

An earned value method for assigning a specified percentage of budget value for a work package to the start milestone of the work package with the remaining budget value percentage assigned when the work package is complete.

Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contract (FPIF)

A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.

Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contracts (FP-EPA)

A fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for predefined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases (or decreases) for specific commodities.

Fixed-Price Contracts

An agreement that sets the fee that will be paid for a defined scope of work regardless of the cost or effort to deliver it.

Float

Also called slack. (Total float and Free float)

Flowchart

The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.

Focus Groups

An elicitation technique that brings together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.

Follow-on action recommendations

Recommended actions related to unfinished work, ongoing issues and risks, and any other activities needed to take a product to the next phase of its life. These are summarized and included in the End Stage Report (for phased handover) and End Project Report.

Forecast

An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. The information is based on the projects past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.

Forward Pass

A critical path method technique for calculating the early start and early finish dates by working forward through the schedule model from the project start date or a given point in time.

Free Float

The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint.

Functional Manager

Someone with management authority over an organizational unit within a functional organization. The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Sometimes called a line manager.

Functional Organization

A hierarchical organization where each employee has one clear superior, and staff are grouped by areas of specialization and managed by a person with expertise in that area.

Funding Limit Reconciliation

The process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to identify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expenditures.

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G

Gantt chart

A bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.

Governance (corporate)

The ongoing activity of maintaining a sound system of internal control by which the directors and officers of an organization ensure that effective management systems, including financial monitoring and control systems, have been put in place to protect assets, earning capacity and the reputation of the organization.

Governance (project)

Those areas of corporate governance that are specifically related to project activities. Effective governance of project management ensures that an organization’s project portfolio is aligned to the organization’s objectives, is delivered efficiently and is sustainable.

Grade

A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., “hammer”) but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).

Ground Rules

Expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members. Group Creativity Techniques. Techniques that are used to generate ideas within a group of stakeholders.

Group Decision-Making Techniques

Techniques to assess multiple alternatives that will be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements.

Guideline

An official recommendation or advice that indicates policies, standards, or procedures for how something should be accomplished.

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H

Hammock Activity (Summary Activity)

A group of related schedule activities aggregated and displayed as a single activity.

Handover

The transfer of ownership of a set of products to the respective user(s). The set of products is known as a release. There may be more than one handover in the life of a project (phased delivery). The final handover takes place in the Closing a Project process.

Hard Logic (Mandatory Dependency)

A relationship that is contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work.

Highlight Report

A time-driven report from the Project Manager to the Project Board on stage progress.

Histogram

A special form of bar chart used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution.

Historical Information

Documents and data on prior projects including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects.

Host site

A site where project work is being undertaken (for example, an office or construction site).

Human Resource Management Plan

A component of the project management plan that describes how the roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staff management will be addressed and structured.

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I

Idea/Mind Mapping

Technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.

Identify Risks

The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.

Identify Stakeholders

The process of identifying the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project; and analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success.

Impact (of risk)

The result of a particular threat or opportunity actually occurring, or the anticipation of such a result.

Imposed Date

A fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a “start no earlier than” and “finish no later than” date.

Incentive Fee

A set of financial incentives related to cost, schedule, or technical performance of the seller.

Incremental Life Cycle

A project life cycle where the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while increments successively add to the functionality of the product.

Independent Estimates

A process of using a third party to obtain and analyze information to support prediction of cost, schedule, or other items.

Influence Diagram

A graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes.

Information Gathering Techniques

Repeatable processes used to assemble and organize data across a spectrum of sources.

Information Management Systems

Facilities, processes, and procedures used to collect, store, and distribute information between producers and consumers of information in physical or electronic format.

Inherent risk

The exposure arising from a specific risk before any action has been taken to manage it.

Initiating Process Group

Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.

Initiation stage

The period from when the Project Board authorizes initiation to when they authorize the project (or decide not to go ahead with the project). The detailed planning and establishment of the project management infrastructure is covered by the Initiating a Project process.

Input

Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process.

Inspection

Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.

Inspections and Audits

A process to observe performance of contracted work or a promised product against agreed-upon requirements.

Interpersonal Skills

Ability to establish and maintain relationships with other people.

Interrelationship Digraphs

A quality management planning tool, the interrelationship digraphs provide a process for creative problem-solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships.

Interviews

A formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.

Invitation for Bid (IFB)

Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Issue Log

A project document used to document and monitor elements under discussion or in dispute between project stakeholders.

Issue Register

A register used to capture and maintain information on all of the issues that are being managed formally. The Issue Register should be monitored by the Project Manager on a regular basis.

Issue Report

A report containing the description, impact assessment and recommendations for a request for change, off-specification or a problem/concern. It is only created for those issues that need to be handled formally.

Issue

A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point or matter that is not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements. – A relevant event that has happened, was not planned, and requires management action. It can be any concern, query, request for change, suggestion or off-specification raised during a project. Project issues can be about anything to do with the project.

Iterative Life Cycle

A project life cycle where the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while increments successively add to the functionality of the product.

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J

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K

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L

Lag

The amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.

Late Finish Date (LF)

In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints.

Late Start Date (LS)

In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints.

Lead

The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.

Lessons Learned Knowledge Base

A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance.

Lessons Learned

The knowledge gained during a project which shows how project events were addressed or should be addressed in the future with the purpose of improving future performance.

Lessons Log

An informal repository for lessons that apply to this project or future projects.

Lessons Report

A report that documents any lessons that can be usefully applied to other projects. The purpose of the report is to provoke action so that the positive lessons from a project become embedded in the organization’s way of working and that the organization is able to avoid the negative lessons on future projects.

Level of Effort (LOE)

An activity that does not produce definitive end products and is measured by the passage of time. [Note: Level of effort is one of three earned valued management (EVM) types of activities used to measure work performance.]

Leveling (Resource Leveling)

A technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply.

Life Cycle (Project Life Cycle)

The series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure.

Log

A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue, quality control, action, or defect.

Logical Relationship

A dependency between two activities, or between an activity and a milestone.

Logs

Informal repositories managed by the Project Manager that do not require any agreement by the Project Board on their format and composition.

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M

Majority

Support from more than 50 percent of the members of the group.

Make-or-Buy Analysis

The process of gathering and organizing data about product requirements and analyzing them against available alternatives including the purchase or internal manufacture of the product.

Make-or-Buy Decisions

Decisions made regarding the external purchase or internal manufacture of a product.

Manage Communications

The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the communications management plan.

Manage Project Team

The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance.

Manage Stakeholder Engagement

The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle.

Management product

A product that will be required as part of managing the project, and establishing and maintaining quality (for example, Highlight Report, End Stage Report etc.). The management products stay constant, whatever the type of project, and can be used as described, or with any relevant modifications, for all projects. There are three types of management product: baselines, records and reports.

Management Reserve

An amount of the project budget withheld for management control purposes. These are budgets reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. The management reserve is not included in the performance measurement baseline (PMB).

Management Skills

The ability to plan, organize, direct, and control individuals or groups of people to achieve specific goals.

Management stage

The section of a project that the Project Manager is managing on behalf of the Project Board at any one time, at the end of which the Project Board will wish to review progress to date, the state of the Project Plan, the Business Case and risks, and the next Stage Plan in order to decide whether to continue with the project.

Mandatory Dependency

A relationship that is contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work.

Market Research

The process of gathering information at conferences, online reviews, and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities.

Master Schedule

A summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones.

Material

The aggregate of things used by an organization in any undertaking, such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machinery, gear, material, and supplies.

Matrix Diagrams

A quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.

Matrix Organization

Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project.

Methodology

A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline.

Milestone List

A list identifying all project milestones and normally indicates whether the milestone is mandatory or optional.

Milestone Schedule

A summary-level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestones.

Milestone

A significant event in a plan’s schedule, such as completion of key Work Packages, a technical stage, or a management stage. – A significant point or event in a project, program, or portfolio.

Monitor and Control Project Work

The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.

Monitor

Collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.

Monte Carlo Simulation

A process which generates hundreds or thousands of probable performance outcomes based on probability distributions for cost and schedule on individual tasks. The outcomes are then used to generate a probability distribution for the project as a whole.

Most Likely Duration

An estimate of the most probable activity duration that takes into account all of the knownvariables that could affect performance.

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

This technique utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas.

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N

Near-Critical Activity

A schedule activity that has low total float. The concept of near-critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity or schedule network path. The limit below which total float is considered near critical is subject to expert judgment and varies from project to project.

Negotiated Settlements

The process of reaching final equitable settlement of all outstanding issues, claims, and disputes through negotiation.

Negotiation

The process and activities to resolving disputes through consultations between involved parties.

Network Analysis (Schedule Network Analysis)

The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities.

Network Logic

The collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram.

Network Path

Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram.

Network (Project Schedule Network Diagram)

A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities.

Networking

Establishing connections and relationships with other people from the same or other organizations.

Node

One of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines.

Nominal Group Technique

A technique that enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization.

Nonconformance Work

In the cost of quality framework, nonconformance work is done to deal with the consequences of errors and failures in doing activities correctly on the first attempt. In efficient quality management systems, the amount of nonconformance work will approach zero.

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O

Objective

Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.

Observations

A technique that provides a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment performing their jobs or tasks and carrying out processes.

Off-specification

Something that should be provided by the project, but currently is not (or is forecast not to be) provided. This might be a missing product or a product not meeting its specifications. It is one type of issue.

Operational and maintenance acceptance

A specific type of acceptance by the person or group who will support the product once it is handed over into the operational environment.

Opportunity

A risk that would have a positive effect on one or more project objectives.

Optimistic Duration

An estimate of the shortest activity duration that takes into account all of the known variables that could affect performance.

Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)

A hierarchical representation of the project organization that illustrates the relationship between project activities and the organizational units that will perform those activities.

Organizational Process Assets

Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.

Organizational Project Management Maturity

The level of an organization’s ability to deliver the desired strategic outcomes in a predictable, controllable, and reliable manner.

Outcome

The result of change, normally affecting real-world behaviour and/or circumstances. Outcomes are desired when a change is conceived. They are achieved as a result of the activities undertaken to effect the change.

Output

A product, result, or service generated by a process. May be an input to a successor process. – A specialist product that is handed over to a user(s). Note that management products are not outputs but are created solely for the purpose of managing the project.

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P

Parametric Estimating

An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.

Pareto Diagram

A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.

Path Convergence

A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one predecessor.

Path Divergence

A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one successor.

Payment Systems

The system used to provide and track supplier’s invoices and payments for services and products.

Percent Complete

An estimate expressed as a percent of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component.

Perform Integrated Change Control

The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition.

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis.

The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.

Perform Quality Assurance

The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.

Performance Measurement Baseline

An approved, integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. The PMB includes contingency reserve, but excludes management reserve.

Performance Reporting (Work Performance Reports)

The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.

Performance Reports (Work Performance Reports)

The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.

Performance Reviews

A technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline.

Performance targets

A plan’s goals for time, cost, quality, scope, benefits and risk.

Performing Organization

An enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the project or program.

Pessimistic Duration

Estimate of the longest activity duration that takes into account all of the known variables that could affect performance.

Phase Gate

A review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to the next phase, to continue with modification, or to end a project or program.

Phase (Project Phase)

A collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables.

Plan Communications Management

The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and requirements and available organizational assets.

Plan Cost Management

The process that establishes the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs.

Plan Human Resource Management

The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan. Plan needs to be abandoned because of issues, risks, or other causes.

Plan Procurement Management

The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.

Plan Quality Management

The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements.

Plan Risk Management

The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.

Plan Risk Responses

The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.

Plan Schedule Management

The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.

Plan Scope Management

The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.

Plan Stakeholder Management

The process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact on project success.

Plan

A detailed proposal for doing or achieving something which specifies the what, when, how and by whom. In PRINCE2 there are only the following types of plan: Project Plan, Stage Plan, Team Plan, Exception Plan and Benefits Review Plan.

Planned closure

The PRINCE2 activity to close a project.

Planned Value (PV)

The authorized budget assigned to scheduled work.

Planning horizon

The period of time for which it is possible to accurately plan.

Planning Package

A work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities.

Planning Process Group

Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.

Plurality

Decisions made by the largest block in a group, even if a majority is not achieved.

Policy

A structured pattern of actions adopted by an organization such that the organization’s policy can be explained as a set of basic principles that govern the organization’s conduct.

Portfolio Management

The centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives.

Portfolio

All the programmes and stand-alone projects being undertaken by an organization, a group of organizations, or an organizational unit. – Projects, programs, subportfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives.

Practice

A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools.

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)

A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.

Precedence Relationship

The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably, regardless of the diagramming method used.

Precision

Within the quality management system, precision is a measure of exactness.

Predecessor Activity

An activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule.

Predictive Life Cycle

A form of project life cycle in which the project scope, and the time and cost required to deliver that scope, are determined as early in the life cycle as possible.

Preferential Logic (Discretionary Dependency)

A relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired.

Preferred Logic (Discretionary Dependency)

A relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired.

Premature closure

The PRINCE2 activity to close a project before its planned closure. The Project Manager must ensure that work in progress is not simply abandoned, but that the project salvages any value created to date, and checks that any gaps left by the cancellation of the project are raised to corporate or programme management.

Prerequisites (plan)

Any fundamental aspects that must be in place, and remain in place, for a plan to succeed.

Preventive Action

An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan.

PRINCE2

A method that supports some selected aspects of project management. The acronym stands for PRojects IN a Controlled Environment.

PRINCE2 principles

The guiding obligations for good project management practice that form the basis of a project being managed using PRINCE2.

PRINCE2 project

A project that applies the PRINCE2 principles.

 

Prioritization Matrices

A quality management planning tool used to identify key issues and evaluate suitable alternatives to define a set of implementation priorities.

Probability and Impact Matrix

A grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.

Probability

This is the evaluated likelihood of a particular threat or opportunity actually happening, including a consideration of the frequency with which this may arise.

Problem/Concern

A type of issue (other than a request for change or off-specification) that the Project Manager needs to resolve or escalate.

Procedure

A series of actions for a particular aspect of project management established specifically for the project – for example, a risk management procedure. – An established method of accomplishing a consistent performance or result, a procedure typically can be described as the sequence of steps that will be used to execute a process.

Process Analysis

A process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.

Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)

The PDPC is used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal.

Process Improvement Plan

A subsidiary plan of the project management plan. It details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities that enhance their value.

Process

A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs. – A systematic series of activities directed towards causing an end result such that one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs.

Procurement Audits

The review of contracts and contracting processes for completeness, accuracy, and effectiveness.

Procurement Documents

The documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer’s Invitation for Bid, Invitation for Negotiations, Request for Information, Request for Quotation, Request for Proposal, and seller’s responses.

Procurement Management Plan

A component of the project or program management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization.

Procurement Performance Reviews

A structured review of the seller’s progress to deliver project scope and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract.

Procurement Statement of Work

Describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services.

Producer

The person or group responsible for developing a product.

Product Analysis

For projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, characteristics, and other the relevant aspects of what is going to be manufactured.

Product Breakdown Structure

A hierarchy of all the products to be produced during a plan.

Product Checklist

A list of the major products of a plan, plus key dates in their delivery.

Product Description

A description of a product’s purpose, composition, derivation and quality criteria. It is produced at planning time, as soon as possible after the need for the product is identified.

Product Flow Diagram

A diagram showing the sequence of production and interdependencies of the products listed in a product breakdown structure.

Product Life Cycle

The series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement.

Product Scope Description

The documented narrative description of the product scope.

Product Scope

The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.

Product Status Account

A report on the status of products. The required products can be specified by identifier or the part of the project in which they were developed.

Product

An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item. Additional words for products are material and goods. Contrast with result. – An input or output, whether tangible or intangible, that can be described in advance, created and tested. PRINCE2 has two types of products – management products and specialist products.

Product-Based Planning

A technique leading to a comprehensive plan based on the creation and delivery of required outputs. The technique considers prerequisite products, quality requirements and the dependencies between products.

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT )

A technique for estimating that applies a weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.

Program Management

The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a program to meet the program requirements and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually.

Program

A group of related projects, sub-programs, and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.

Programme

A temporary flexible organization structure created to coordinate, direct and oversee the implementation of a set of related projects and activities in order to deliver outcomes and benefits related to the organization’s strategic objectives. A programme is likely to have a life that spans several years.

Progressive Elaboration

The iterative process of increasing the level of detail in a project management plan as greater amounts of information and more accurate estimates become available.

Project Approach

A description of the way in which the work of the project is to be approached. For example, are we building a product from scratch or buying in a product that already exists?

Project Assurance

The Project Board’s responsibilities to assure itself that the project is being conducted correctly. The Project Board members each have a specific area of focus for Project Assurance, namely business assurance for the Executive, user assurance for the Senior User(s), and supplier assurance for the Senior Supplier(s).

Project Authorization Notification

Advice from the Project Board to inform all stakeholders and the host sites that the project has been authorized and to request any necessary logistical support (e.g. communication facilities, equipment and any project support) sufficient for the duration of the project.

Project Brief

Statement that describes the purpose, cost, time and performance requirements, and constraints for a project. It is created pre-project during the Starting up a Project process and is used during the Initiating a Project process to create the Project Initiation Documentation and its components. It is superseded by the Project Initiation Documentation and not maintained.

Project Calendar

A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities.

Project Charter

A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

Project Communications Management

Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.

Project Cost Management

Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.

Project Funding Requirements

Forecast project costs to be paid that are derived from the cost baseline for total or periodic requirements, including projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities.

Project Governance

The alignment of project objectives with the strategy of the larger organization by the project sponsor and project team. A project’s governance is defined by and is required to fit within the larger context of the program or organization sponsoring it, but is separate from organizational governance.

Project Human Resource Management

Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.

Project Initiation Documentation

A logical set of documents that brings together the key information needed to start the project on a sound basis and that conveys the information to all concerned with the project.

Project Initiation Notification

Advice from the Project Board to inform all stakeholders and the host sites that the project is being initiated and to request any necessary logistical support (e.g. communication facilities, equipment and any project support) sufficient for the initiation stage.

Project Initiation

Launching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project.

Project Integration Management

Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.

Project Life Cycle

The series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure.

Project Lifecycle

The period from the start-up of a project to the acceptance of the project product.

Project Management Body of Knowledge

An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As with other professions, such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance it. The complete project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. The body of knowledge includes both published and unpublished materials. This body of knowledge is constantly evolving. PMI’s PMBOKR Guide identifies a subset of the project management body of knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice.

Project Management Information System

An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems.

Project Management Knowledge Area

An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques.

Project Management Office (PMO)

An organizational structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques.

Project Management Plan

The document that describes how the project will be executed monitored, and controlled.

Project Management Process Group

A logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups include initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes, and closing processes. Project Management Process Groups are not project phases.

Project Management Staff

The members of the project team who perform project management activities such as schedule, communications, risk management, etc.

Project Management System

The aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project.

Project Management Team Structure

An organization chart showing the people assigned to the project management team roles to be used, and their delegation and reporting relationships.

Project Management Team

The entire management structure of the Project Board, and Project Manager, plus any Team Manager, Project Assurance and Project Support roles. – The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members.

Project Management

The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.

Project Management

The planning, delegating, monitoring and control of all aspects of the project, and the motivation of those involved, to achieve the project objectives within the expected performance targets for time, cost, quality, scope, benefits and risks.

Project Manager (PM)

The person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives.

Project Manager

The person given the authority and responsibility to manage the project on a day-to-day basis to deliver the required products within the constraints agreed with the Project Board.

Project Mandate

An external product generated by the authority commissioning the project that forms the trigger for Starting up a Project.

Project Office

A temporary office set up to support the delivery of a specific change initiative being delivered as a project. If used, the project office undertakes the responsibility of the Project Support role.

Project Organization Chart

A document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project.

Project Phase

A collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables.

Project Plan

A high-level plan showing the major products of the project, when they will be delivered and at what cost. An initial Project Plan is presented as part of the Project Initiation Documentation. This is revised as information on actual progress appears. It is a major control document for the Project Board to measure actual progress against expectations.

Project Procurement Management

Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.

Project Product Description

A special type of Product Description used to gain agreement from the user on the project’s scope and requirements, to define the customer’s quality expectations, and to define the acceptance criteria for the project.

Project Product

What the project must deliver in order to gain acceptance.

Project Quality Management

Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

Project Risk Management

Project Risk Management includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and controlling risk on a project.

Project Schedule Network Diagram

A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities.

Project Schedule

An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources.

Project Scope Management

Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.

Project Scope Statement

The description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.

Project Scope

The work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.

Project Stakeholder Management

Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify all people or organizations impacted by the project, analyzing stakeholder expectations and impact on the project, and developing appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.

Project Statement of Work. (Statement of Work (SOW))

A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project.

Project Support

An administrative role in the project management team. Project Support can be in the form of advice and help with project management tools, guidance, administrative services such as filing, and the collection of actual data.

Project Team Directory

A documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information.

Project Team

A set of individuals who support the project manager in performing the work of the project to achieve its objectives.

Project Time Management

Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

Project

A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. – A temporary organization that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to an agreed Business Case.

Project-Based Organizations (PBOs)

A variety of organizational forms that involve the creation of temporary systems for the performance of projects. PBOs conduct the majority of their activities as projects and/or provide project over functional approaches.

Projectised Organization

Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities, apply resources, and direct the work of persons assigned to the project.

Proposal Evaluation Techniques

The process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions.

Prototypes

A method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.

Proximity (of risk)

The time factor of risk, i.e. when the risk may occur. The impact of a risk may vary in severity depending on when the risk occurs.

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Q

Quality

The totality of features and inherent or assigned characteristics of a product, person, process, service and/or system that bears on its ability to show that it meets expectations or satisfies stated needs, requirements or specifications.

Quality Assurance

An independent check that products will be fit for purpose or meet requirements.

Quality Audits

A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.

Quality Checklists

A structured tool used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.

Quality Control Measurements

The documented results of control quality activities.

Quality Control

The process of monitoring specific project results to determine whether they comply with relevant standards and of identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.

Quality Criteria

A description of the quality specification that the product must meet, and the quality measurements that will be applied by those inspecting the finished product.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

A facilitated workshop technique that helps to determine critical characteristics for new product development.

Quality Inspection

A systematic, structured assessment of a product carried out by two or more carefully selected people (the review team) in a planned, documented and organized fashion.

Quality Management and Control Tools

They are a type of quality planning tools used to link and sequence the activities identified.

Quality Management Plan

A component of the project or program management plan that describes how an organization’s quality policies will be implemented.

Quality Management Strategy

A strategy defining the quality techniques and standards to be applied, and the various responsibilities for achieving the required quality levels, during a project.

Quality Management System

The complete set of quality standards, procedures and responsibilities for a site or organization. In the project context, ‘sites’ and ‘organizations’ should be interpreted as the permanent or semi-permanent organization(s) sponsoring the project work, i.e. they are ‘external’ to the project’s temporary organization. A programme, for instance, can be regarded as a semi-permanent organization that sponsors projects – and it may have a documented quality management system. – The organizational framework whose structure provides the policies, processes, procedures, and resources required to implement the quality management plan. The typical project quality management plan should be compatible to the organization’s quality management system.

Quality Metrics

A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.

Quality Policy

A policy specific to the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area, it establishes the basic principles that should govern the organization’s actions as it implements its system for quality management.

Quality Records

Evidence kept to demonstrate that the required quality assurance and quality control activities have been carried out.

Quality Register

A register containing summary details of all planned and completed quality activities. The Quality Register is used by the Project Manager and Project Assurance as part of reviewing progress.

Quality Requirement

A condition or capability that will be used to assess conformance by validating the acceptability of an attribute for the quality of a result.

Quality Review Technique

A quality inspection technique with defined roles and a specific structure. It is designed to assess whether a product that takes the form of a document (or similar, e.g. a presentation) is complete, adheres to standards and meets the quality criteria agreed for it in the relevant Product Description. The participants are drawn from those with the necessary competence to evaluate its fitness for purpose.

Quality Review

(Quality Inspection) A systematic, structured assessment of a product carried out by two or more carefully selected people (the review team) in a planned, documented and organized fashion.

Quality Tolerance

The tolerance identified for a product for a quality criterion defining an acceptable range of values. Quality tolerance is documented in the Project Product Description (for the project-level quality tolerance) and in the Product Description for each product to be delivered.

Quantitative Risk Analysis and Modeling Techniques

Commonly used techniques for both event-oriented and project-oriented analysis approaches.

Questionnaires and Surveys

Written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents.

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RACI

A common type of responsibility assignment matrix that uses responsible, accountable, consult, and inform statuses to define the involvement of stakeholders in project activities.

Records Dynamic

Management products that maintain information regarding project progress.

Records Management System

A specific set of processes, related control functions, and tools that are consolidated and combined to record and retain information about the project.

Reduce (risk response)

A response to a risk where proactive actions are taken to reduce the probability of the event occurring by performing some form of control, and/or to reduce the impact of the event should it occur.

Registers

Formal repositories managed by the Project Manager that require agreement by the Project Board on their format, composition and use. PRINCE2 has three registers: Issue Register, Risk Register and Quality Register.

Regression Analysis

An analytic technique where a series of input variables are examined in relation to their corresponding output results in order to develop a mathematical or statistical relationship.

Regulation

Requirements imposed by a governmental body. These requirements can establish product, process, or service characteristics, including applicable administrative provisions that have government-mandated compliance.

Reject (risk response)

A response to a risk (opportunity) where a conscious and deliberate decision is taken not to exploit or enhance an opportunity, having discerned that it is more economical to do so than to attempt a risk response action. The opportunity should continue to be monitored.

Release

The set of products in a handover. The contents of a release are managed, tested and deployed as a single entity.

Reporting Systems

Facilities, processes, and procedures used to generate or consolidate reports from one or more information management systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders.

Reports

Management products providing a snapshot of the status of certain aspects of the project.

Request for Change

A proposal for a change to a baseline. It is a type of issue.

Request for Information (RFI)

A type of procurement document whereby the buyer requests a potential seller to provide various pieces of information related to a product or service or seller capability.

Request for Proposal (RFP)

A type of procurement document used to request proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Request for Quotation (RFQ)

A type of procurement document used to request price quotations from prospective sellers of common or standard products or services. Sometimes used in place of request for proposal and, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Requested Change

A formally documented change request that is submitted for approval to the integrated change control process.

Requirement

A condition or capability that is required to be present in a product, service, or result to satisfy a contract or other formally imposed specification.

Requirements Documentation

A description of how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.

Requirements Management Plan

A component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.

Requirements Traceability Matrix

A grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.

Reserve Analysis

An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.

Reserve

A provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated.

Residual Risk

A risk that remains after risk responses have been implemented. – The risk remaining after the risk response has been applied.

Resource Breakdown Structure

A hierarchical representation of resources by category and type.

Resource Calendar

A calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available.

Resource Histogram

A bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods. Resource availability may be depicted as a line for comparison purposes. Contrasting bars may show actual amounts of resources used as the project progresses.

Resource Leveling

A technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply.

Resource Optimization Techniques

A technique that is used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities that adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability.

Resource Smoothing

A technique which adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirement for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits.

Resource

Skilled human resources (specific disciplines either individually or in crews or teams), equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, budgets, or funds.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

A grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.

Responsibility

An assignment that can be delegated within a project management plan such that the assigned resource incurs a duty to perform the requirements of the assignment.

Responsible Authority

The person or group commissioning the project (typically corporate or programme management) who has the authority to commit resources and funds on behalf of the commissioning organization.

Result

An output from performing project management processes and activities. Results include outcomes (e.g., integrated systems, revised process, restructured organization, tests, trained personnel, etc.) and documents (e.g., policies, plans, studies, procedures, specifications, reports, etc.). Contrast with product.

Reviewer

A person or group independent of the producer who assesses whether a product meets its requirements as defined in its Product Description.

Rework

Action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming component into compliance with requirements or specifications.

Risk Acceptance

A risk response strategy whereby the project team decides to acknowledge the risk and not take any action unless the risk occurs.

Risk Actionee

A nominated owner of an action to address a risk. Some actions may not be within the remit of the risk owner to control explicitly; in that situation there should be a nominated owner of the action to address the risk. He or she will need to keep the risk owner apprised of the situation.

Risk Appetite

An organization’s unique attitude towards risk taking that in turn dictates the amount of risk that it considers is acceptable. – The degree of uncertainty an entity is willing to take on, in anticipation of a reward.

Risk Audits

Examination and documentation of the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.

Risk Avoidance

A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to eliminate the threat or protect the project from its impact.

Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS)

A hierarchical representation of risks according to their risk categories.

Risk Categorization

Organization by sources of risk (e.g., using the RBS), the area of the project affected (e.g., using the WBS), or other useful category (e.g., project phase) to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty.

Risk Category

A group of potential causes of risk.

Risk Data Quality Assessment

Technique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management.

Risk Estimation

The estimation of probability and impact of an individual risk, taking into account predetermined standards, target risk levels, interdependencies and other relevant factors.

Risk Evaluation

The process of understanding the net effect of the identified threats and opportunities on an activity when aggregated together.

Risk Management Plan

A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed.

Risk Management Strategy

A strategy describing the goals of applying risk management, as well as the procedure that will be adopted, roles and responsibilities, risk tolerances, the timing of risk management interventions, the tools and techniques that will be used, and the reporting requirements.

Risk Management

The systematic application of principles, approaches and processes to the tasks of identifying and assessing risks, and then planning and implementing risk responses.

Risk Mitigation

A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to reduce the probability of occurrence or impact of a risk.

Risk Owner

A named individual who is responsible for the management, monitoring and control of all aspects of a particular risk assigned to them, including the implementation of the selected responses to address the threats or to maximize the opportunities.

Risk Profile

A description of the types of risk that are faced by an organization and its exposure to those risks.

Risk Reassessment

Risk reassessment is the identification of new risks, reassessment of current risks, and the closing of risks that are outdated.

Risk Register

A document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded. – A record of identified risks relating to an initiative, including their status and history.

Risk Response Category

A category of risk response. For threats, the individual risk response category can be avoid, reduce, transfer, accept or share. For opportunities, the individual risk response category can be exploit, enhance, reject or share.

Risk Response

Actions that may be taken to bring a situation to a level where exposure to risk is acceptable to the organization. These responses fall into a number of risk response categories.

Risk Threshold

Measure of the level of uncertainty or the level of impact at which a stakeholder may have a specific interest. Below that risk threshold, the organization will accept the risk. Above that risk threshold, the organization will not tolerate the risk.

Risk Tolerance Line

A line drawn on the summary risk profile. Risks that appear above this line cannot be accepted (lived with) without referring them to a higher authority. For a project, the Project Manager would refer these risks to the Project Board.

Risk Tolerance

The degree, amount, or volume of risk that an organization or individual will withstand. – The threshold levels of risk exposure which, when exceeded, will trigger an Exception Report to bring the situation to the attention of the Project Board. Risk tolerances could include limits on the plan’s aggregated risks (e.g. cost of aggregated threats to remain less than 10% of the plan’s budget), or limits on any individual threat (e.g. any threat to operational service). Risk tolerance is documented in the Risk Management Strategy.

Risk Transference

A risk response strategy whereby the project team shifts the impact of a threat to a third party, together with ownership of the response.

Risk Urgency Assessment

Review and determination of the timing of actions that may need to occur sooner than other risk items.

Risk

An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives. An uncertain event or set of events that, should it occur, will have an effect on the achievement of objectives. A risk is measured by a combination of the probability of a perceived threat or opportunity occurring, and the magnitude of its impact on objectives.

Role Description

A description of the set of responsibilities specific to a role.

Role

A defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing, filing, inspecting, or coding.

Rolling Wave Planning

An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.

Root Cause Analysis

An analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance or a defect or a risk. A root cause may underlie more than one variance or defect or risk.

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S

Scatter Diagram

A correlation chart that uses a regression line to explain or to predict how the change in an independent variable will change a dependent variable.

Schedule Baseline

The approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.

Schedule Compression

Techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope.

Schedule Data

The collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule.

Schedule Forecasts

Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time the schedule is calculated.

Schedule Management Plan

A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.

Schedule Model

A representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce a project schedule along with other scheduling artifacts.

Schedule Network Analysis

The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities.

Schedule Network Templates

A set of activities and relationships that have been established that can be used repeatedly for a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a prescribed sequence is desired.

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

A measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value.

Schedule Variance (SV)

A measure of schedule performance expressed as the difference between the earned value and the planned value.

Schedule (Schedule Model)

A representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce a project schedule along with other scheduling artifacts. – Graphical representation of a plan (for example, a Gantt chart), typically describing a sequence of tasks, together with resource allocations, which collectively deliver the plan. In PRINCE2, project activities should only be documented in the schedules associated with a Project Plan, Stage Plan or Team Plan. Actions that are allocated from day-to-day management may be documented in the relevant project log (i.e. Risk Register, Daily Log, Issue Register, Quality Register) if they do not require significant activity.

Scheduling Tool

A tool that provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a scheduling method.

Scope Baseline.

The approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.

Scope Change

Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires an adjustment to the project cost or schedule.

Scope Creep

The uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope without adjustments to time, cost, and resources.

Scope Management Plan

A component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified.

Scope Tolerance

The permissible deviation in a plan’s scope that is allowed before the deviation needs to be escalated to the next level of management. Scope tolerance is documented in the respective plan in the form of a note or reference to the product breakdown structure for that plan.

Scope

For a plan, the sum total of its products and the extent of their requirements. It is described by the product breakdown structure for the plan and associated Product Descriptions. – The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project.

Secondary Risk

A risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response.

Selected Sellers

The sellers which have been selected to provide a contracted set of services or products.

Seller Proposals

Formal responses from sellers to a request for proposal or other procurement document specifying the price, commercial terms of sale, and technical specifications or capabilities the seller will do for the requesting organization that, if accepted, would bind the seller to perform the resulting agreement.

Seller

A provider or supplier of products, services, or results to an organization.

Senior Responsible Owner

A UK government term for the individual responsible for ensuring that a project or programme of change meets its objectives and delivers the projected benefits. The person should be the owner of the overall business change that is being supported by the project. The Senior Responsible Owner (SRO) should ensure that the change maintains its business focus, that it has clear authority, and that the context, including risks, is actively managed. This individual must be senior and must take personal responsibility for successful delivery of the project. The SRO should be recognized as the owner throughout the organization. The SRO appoints the project’s Executive (or in some cases may elect to be the Executive).

Senior Supplier

The Project Board role that provides knowledge and experience of the main discipline(s) involved in the production of the project’s deliverable(s). The Senior Supplier represents the supplier interests within the project and provides supplier resources.

Senior User

The Project Board role accountable for ensuring that user needs are specified correctly and that the solution meets those needs.

Sensitivity Analysis

A quantitative risk analysis and modeling technique used to help determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project. It examines the extent to which the uncertainty of each project element affects the objective being examined when all other uncertain elements are held at their baseline values. The typical display of results is in the form of a tornado diagram.

Sequence Activities

The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.

Seven Basic Quality Tools

A standard toolkit used by quality management professionals who are responsible for planning, monitoring, and controlling the issues related to quality in an organization.

Share (Risk Response)

A risk response to either a threat or an opportunity through the application of a pain/gain formula: both parties share the gain (within pre-agreed limits) if the cost is less than the cost plan; and both share the pain (again within pre-agreed limits) if the cost plan is exceeded.

Simulation

A simulation uses a project model that translates the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on objectives that are expressed at the level of the total project. Project simulations use computer models and estimates of risk, usually expressed as a probability distribution of possible costs or durations at a detailed work level, and are typically performed using Monte Carlo analysis.

Soft Logic (Discretionary Dependency)

A relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired.

Source Selection Criteria

A set of attributes desired by the buyer which a seller is required to meet or exceed to be selected for a contract.

Specialist Product

A product whose development is the subject of the plan. The specialist products are specific to an individual project (for example, an advertising campaign, a car park ticketing system, foundations for a building, a new business process etc.) Also known as a deliverable or output.

Specification Limits

The area, on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart that meets the customer’s requirements for a product or service. This area may be greater than or less than the area defined by the control limits.

Specification

A document that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a system, component, product, result, or service and the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. Examples are: requirement specification, design specification, product specification, and test specification.

Sponsor

A person or group who provides resources and support for the project, program, or portfolio and is accountable for enabling success. – The main driving force behind a programme or project. PRINCE2 does not define a role for the sponsor, but the sponsor is most likely to be the Executive on the Project Board, or the person who has appointed the Executive.

Sponsoring Organization

The entity responsible for providing the project’s sponsor and a conduit for project funding or other project resources.

Staffing Management Plan

A component of the human resource plan that describes when and how project team members will be acquired and how long they will be needed.

Stage Plan

A detailed plan used as the basis for project management control throughout a stage.

Stage (management stage)

The section of a project that the Project Manager is managing on behalf of the Project Board at any one time, at the end of which the Project Board will wish to review progress to date, the state of the Project Plan, the Business Case and risks, and the next Stage Plan in order to decide whether to continue with the project.

Stakeholder Analysis

A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project.

Stakeholder Management Plan

The stakeholder management plan is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan that defines the processes, procedures, tools, and techniques to effectively engage stakeholders in project decisions and execution based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact.

Stakeholder Register

A project document including the identification, assessment, and classification of project stakeholders.

Stakeholder

An individual, group, or organization who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project. – Any individual, group or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by, an initiative (programme, project, activity, risk).

Standard

A document that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.

Start Date

A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current.

Start-to-Finish (SF)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.

Start-to-Start (SS)

A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.

Start-Up

The pre-project activities undertaken by the Executive and the Project Manager to produce the outline Business Case, Project Brief and Initiation Stage Plan.

Statement of Work (SOW)

A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project.

Statistical Sampling

Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.

Strategy

An approach or line to take, designed to achieve a long-term aim. strategies can exist at different levels – at the corporate, programme and project level. At the project level, PRINCE2 defines four strategies: Communication Management Strategy, Configuration Management Strategy, Quality Management Strategy and Risk Management Strategy.

Subnetwork

A subdivision (fragment) of a project schedule network diagram, usually representing a subproject or a work package. Often used to illustrate or study some potential or proposed schedule condition, such as changes in preferential schedule logic or project scope.

Subproject

A smaller portion of the overall project created when a project is subdivided into more manageable components or pieces.

Successor Activity

A dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule.

Summary Activity

A group of related schedule activities aggregated and displayed as a single activity.

Supplier

The person, group or groups responsible for the supply of the project’s specialist products

SWOT Analysis

Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization, project, or option.

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T

Tailor

The act of carefully selecting process and related inputs and outputs contained within the PMBOKR Guide to determine a subset of specific processes that will be included within a project’s overall management approach.

Tailoring

The appropriate use of PRINCE2 on any given project, ensuring that there is the correct amount of planning, control, governance and use of the processes and themes (whereas the adoption of PRINCE2 across an organization is known as ‘embedding’).

Team Manager

The person responsible for the production of those products allocated by the Project Manager (as defined in a Work Package) to an appropriate quality, timescale and at a cost acceptable to the Project Board. This role reports to, and takes direction from, the Project Manager. If a Team Manager is not assigned, then the Project Manager undertakes the responsibilities of the Team Manager role.

Team Plan

An optional level of plan used as the basis for team management control when executing Work Packages.

Technical Stage

A method of grouping work together by the set of techniques used, or the products created. This results in stages covering elements such as design, build and implementation. Such stages are technical stages and are a separate concept from management stages.

Technique

A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service, and that may employ one or more tools.

Templates

A partially complete document in a predefined format that provides a defined structure for collecting, organizing, and presenting information and data.

Theme

An aspect of project management that needs to be continually addressed, and that requires specific treatment for the PRINCE2 processes to be effective.

Threat

A risk that would have a negative effect on one or more project objectives.

Three-Point Estimate

A technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.

Threshold

A cost, time, quality, technical, or resource value used as a parameter, and which may be included in product specifications. Crossing the threshold should trigger some action, such as generating an exception report.

Time and Material Contract (T&M)

A type of contract that is a hybrid contractual arrangement containing aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts. Time and material contracts resemble cost-reimbursable type arrangements in that they have no definitive end, because the full value of the arrangement is not defined at the time of the award. Thus, time and material contracts can grow in contract value as if they were cost-reimbursable type arrangements. Conversely, time and material arrangements can also resemble fixed-price arrangements. For example, the unit rates are preset by the buyer and seller, when both parties agree on the rates for the category of senior engineers.

Time Tolerance

The permissible deviation in a plan’s time that is allowed before the deviation needs to be escalated to the next level of management. Time tolerance is documented in the respective plan.

Time-Driven Control

A management control that is periodic in nature, to enable the next higher authority to monitor progress – e.g. a control that takes place every two weeks. PRINCE2 offers two key time-driven progress reports: Checkpoint Report and Highlight Report.

Time-Scaled Schedule Network Diagram

Any project schedule network diagram drawn in such a way that the positioning and length of the schedule activity represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes schedule network logic.

To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI)

A measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.

Tolerance

The permissible deviation above and below a plan’s target for time and cost without escalating the deviation to the next level of management. There may also be tolerance levels for quality, scope, benefit and risk. Tolerance is applied at project, stage and team levels. – The quantified description of acceptable variation for a quality requirement.

Tool

Something tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an activity to produce a product or result.

Tornado Diagram

A special type of bar chart used in sensitivity analysis for comparing the relative importance of the variables.

Total Float

The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.

Tranch

A programme management term describing a group of projects structured around distinct step changes in capability and benefit delivery.

Transfer (Risk Response)

A response to a threat where a third party takes on responsibility for some of the financial impact of the threat (for example, through insurance or by means of appropriate clauses in a contract).

Tree Diagram

A systematic diagram of a decomposition hierarchy used to visualize as parent-to-child relationships a systematic set of rules.

Trend Analysis

An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. It is a method of determining the variance from a baseline of a budget, cost, schedule, or scope parameter by using prior progress reporting periods’ data and projecting how much that parameter’s variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project.

Trigger Condition

An event or situation that indicates that a risk is about to occur.

Trigger

An event or decision that triggers a PRINCE2 process.

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U

Unanimity

Agreement by everyone in the group on a single course of action.

User Acceptance

A specific type of acceptance by the person or group who will use the product once it is handed over into the operational environment.

User

The person or group who will use one or more of the project’s products.

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V

Validate Scope

The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.

Validated Deliverables

Deliverables that are result of executing quality control process to determine correctness.

Validation

The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. It often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers. Contrast with verification.

Value Engineering

An approach used to optimize project life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve quality, expand market share, solve problems, and/or use resources more effectively.

Variance Analysis

A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.

Variance at Completion (VAC)

A projection of the amount of budget deficit or surplus, expressed as the difference between the budget at completion and the estimate at completion.

Variance

A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known baseline or expected value.

Variant

A variation on a baselined product. For example, an operations manual may have an English variant and a Spanish variant.

Variation

An actual condition that is different from the expected condition that is contained in the baseline plan.

Velocity

A measure of a team’s productivity rate at which the deliverables are produced, validated, and accepted within a predefined interval. Velocity is a capacity planning approach frequently used to forecast future project work.

Verification

The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition. It is often an internal process. Contrast with validation.

Version

A specific baseline of a product. Versions typically use naming conventions that enable the sequence or date of the baseline to be identified. For example, Project Plan version 2 is the baseline after Project Plan version 1.

Voice of the Customer

A planning technique used to provide products, services, and results that truly reflect customer requirements by translating those customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of project product development.

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W

Waterfall Method

A development approach that is linear and sequential with distinct goals for each phase of development. Once a phase of development is completed, the development proceeds to the next phase and earlier phases are not revisited (hence the analogy that water flowing down a mountain cannot go back).

WBS Dictionary

A document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the work breakdown structure.

Weighted Milestone Method

An earned value method that divides a work package into measurable segments, each ending with an observable milestone, and then assigns a weighted value to the achievement of each milestone.

What-If Scenario Analysis

The process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect on project objectives.

Work Authorization System

A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized (committed) to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence. It includes the steps, documents, tracking system, and defined approval levels needed to issue work authorizations.

Work Authorization

A permission and direction, typically written, to begin work on a specific schedule activity or work package or control account. It is a method for sanctioning project work to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.

Work Breakdown Structure Component

An entry in the work breakdown structure that can be at any level.

Work Package

The set of information relevant to the creation of one or more products. It will contain a description of the work, the Product Description(s), details of any constraints on production, and confirmation of the agreement between the Project Manager and the person or Team Manager who is to implement the Work Package that the work can be done within the constraints. – The work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed.

Work Performance Data

The raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work.

Work Performance Information

The performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas.

Work Performance Reports

The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness

Workaround

A response to a threat that has occurred, for which a prior response had not been planned or was not effective.

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References:

  • A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide Fifth Edition)
  • Managing Successful Project with PRINCE2, Fifth Edition