Management Systems

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A

Abrasive Blasting

Means propelling a stream of abrasive material at high speed against a surface using compressed air, liquid, steam, centrifugal wheels or paddles to clean, abrade, etch or otherwise change the original appearance or condition of the surface.

Accountability

Holding an individual or group subject to blame or penalty for the results of specified tasks, functions or results. The risk can be that the individual or group, while having responsibility to make a contribution to the task or result, cannot control all of the factors affecting the outcome and may be blamed (or credited) undeservedly for effects of other factors.

Accreditation

Certification by a duly recognized body of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence, and integrity of an agency, service or operational group or individual to provide the specific service(s) or operation(s) needed.

Acid Rain

The precipitation of dilute solutions of strong mineral acids, formed by the mixing in the atmosphere of various industrial pollutants

Act

In the legislative sense, a bill or measure passed by both houses of Congress; a law.

Accreditation Certification

By a duly recognized body of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence, and integrity of an agency, service or operational group or individual to provide the specific service(s) or operation(s) needed.

Administrative Control

Means a method of work, a process or a procedure designed to minimise risk, but does not include: (a) an engineering control, or (b) the use of personal protective equipment.

Airborne Contaminant

Means a contaminant in the form of a fume, mist, gas, vapour or dust, and includes microorganisms.

Air Pollution

Toxic or radioactive gases or particulate matter introduced into the atmosphere, usually as a result of human activity.

Alternative energy

Energy that is not popularly used and is usually environmentally sound, such as solar or wind energy.

Alternative Fibers

Fibres produced from non-wood sources for use in paper making.

Alternative Fuels

Transportation fuels other than gasoline or diesel. Includes natural gas, methanol, and electricity

Alternative Transportation

Modes of travel other than private cars, such as walking, bicycling, rollerblading, carpooling and transit.

Amendment

A change or addition to an existing law or rule.

Ancient Forest

A forest that is typically older than 200 years with large trees, dense canopies and an abundance of diverse wildlife.

Apportionment

The process through which legislative seats are allocated to different regions.

Aquaculture

The controlled rearing of fish or shellfish by people or corporations who own the harvestable product, often involving the capture of the eggs or young of a species from wild sources, followed by rearing more intensively than possible in nature.

Aquifer

Underground source of water.

Arms Control

Coordinated action based on agreements to limit, regulate, or reduce weapon systems by the parties involved.

Article

Means a manufactured item, other than a fluid or particle, that:(a) is formed into a particular shape or design during manufacture,and (b) has hazard properties and a function that are wholly or partly dependent on the shape or design.

AS9100

Quality system requirements for suppliers to the aerospace industry (previously known as AS9000).

Asbestos

Means the asbestiform varieties of mineral silicates belonging to the serpentine or amphibole groups of rock forming minerals including the following:

(a) actinolite asbestos,

(b) grunerite (or amosite) asbestos (brown),

(c) anthophyllite asbestos,

(d) chrysotile asbestos (white),

(e) crocidolite asbestos (blue),

(f) tremolite asbestos,

(g) a mixture that contains 1 or more of the minerals referred to in paragraphs (a) to (f).

Asbestos Containing Material (ACM)

Means any material or thing that, as part of its design, contains asbestos.

Asbestos-Contaminated Dust Or Debris (ACD)

Means dust or debris that has settled within a workplace and is, or is assumed to be, contaminated with asbestos.

Asbestos Removal Licence

Means a Class A asbestos removal licence or a Class B asbestos removal licence.

Asbestos Removal Work

Means work involving the removal of asbestos or ACM

Asbestos Removalist

Means a person conducting a business or undertaking who carries out asbestos removal work.

Asbestos Waste

Means asbestos or ACM removed and disposable items used during asbestos removal work including plastic sheeting and disposable tools.

Ash

Incombustible residue left over after incineration or other thermal processes.

Asthma

A condition marked by labored breathing, constriction of the chest, coughing and gasping usually brought on by allergies.

Assessment

A systematic evaluation process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the current, historical or projected compliance of an organization to a standard.

Assurance

A dimension of service quality that refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence.

Atmosphere

The 500 km thick layer of air surrounding the earth which supports the existence of all flora and fauna.

Atomic Energy

Energy released in nuclear reactions. When a neutron splits an atom’s nucleus into smaller pieces it is called fission. When two nuclei are joined together under millions of degrees of heat it is called fusion.

Audit

Systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled

Audit Criteria

Set of policies, procedures or requirements. Audit criteria are used as a reference against which audit evidence is compared.

Audit Evidence

Records, statements of fact or other information (qualitative or quantitative) which are relevant to the audit criteria and verifiable

Audit findings

Results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence against audit criteria and can indicate either conformity or nonconformity with audit criteria, or opportunities for improvement.

Audit conclusion

Outcome of an audit provided by the audit team after consideration of the audit objectives and all audit findings

Audit client

Organization or person requesting an audit, including auditee or any other organization having the regulatory or contractual right to request an audit

Auditee

Organization being audited

Auditor

Person with the demonstrated personal attributes (see ISO 19011) and competence to conduct an audit

Audit plan

Description of the activities and arrangements for an audit

Audit team

One or more auditors conducting an audit with an audit team leader, may include auditors-in-training, and supported if needed by technical experts

Audit scope

Extent and boundaries of an audit, generally describes the physical locations, organizational units, activities and processes, as well as the time period covered

Availability

A product or service’s ability to perform its intended function at a given time and under appropriate conditions. It can be expressed by the ratio operative time/total time where operative time is the time that it is functioning or ready to function.

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B

Basic Events

Term used in fault tree analysis. Basic events are initiating faults that do not require events below them to show how they occurred. The symbol used for a basic event is a circle.

Benchmarking

A technique that involves comparing one’s own processes to excellent examples of similar processes in other organizations or departments. Through benchmarking, rapid learning can occur, and processes can undergo dramatic improvements.

Best-of-the-Best

Term used to refer to outstanding world benchmark firms.

Best-in-Class

Term used to refer to firms or organizations that are viewed as the best in an industry on some meaningful criterion.

Bill

A proposed law, to be debated and voted on.

Biodegradable

Waste material composed primarily of naturally-occurring constituent parts, able to be broken down and absorbed into the ecosystem. Wood, for example, is biodegradable, for example, while plastics are not.

Biodiversity

A large number and wide range of species of animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms. Ecologically, wide biodiversity is conducive to the development of all species.

Biomass

(1) The amount of living matter in an area, including plants, large animals and insects; (2) plant materials and animal waste used as fuel.

Biosphere

(1) The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life; (2) the living organisms and their environment composing the biosphere.

Biological Monitoring

(a) The measurement and evaluation of a substance, or its metabolites, in the body tissue, fluids or exhaled air of a person exposed to the substance, or (b) blood lead level monitoring.

Bridge Crane

Means a crane that: (a) consists of a bridge beam or beams, that are mounted to end carriages at each end, and (b) is capable of travelling along elevated runways, and (c) has 1 or more hoisting mechanisms arranged to traverse across the bridge.

Brainstorming

A tool used to encourage creative thinking and new ideas. A group formulates and records as many ideas as possible concerning a certain subject, regardless of the content of the ideas. No discussion, evaluation, or criticism of ideas is allowed until the brainstorming session is complete.

Building Maintenance Equipment

A suspended platform and associated equipment, including a building maintenance unit or a swing stage, that incorporates permanently installed overhead supports to provide access to the faces of a building for maintenance, but does not include a suspended scaffold.

Building Maintenance Unit

A power operated suspended platform and associated equipment on a building specifically designed to provide permanent access to the faces of the building for maintenance.

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C

Calibration

Comparison of a measurement instrument or system of unverified accuracy to a measurement instrument or system of known accuracy to detect any variation from the required performance specification.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

A naturally occurring greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, concentrations of which have increased (from 280 parts per million in preindustrial times to over 350 parts per million today) as a result of humans’ burning of coal, oil, natural gas and organic matter (e.g., wood and crop wastes).

Carbon Tax

A charge on fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) based on their carbon content. When burned, the carbon in these fuels becomes carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the chief greenhouse gas.

Carbon emissions

In the context of climate change, carbon dioxide released when substances, especially oil, gas, and coal, are burned by vehicles and planes, by factories and by homes.

Carbon footprint

A measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, especially climate change, often reported as the units of tonnes (or kg) of carbon dioxide each of us produces over a given period of time.

Carbon monoxide

A highly poisonous, odourless, tasteless and colourless gas that is formed when carbon material burns without enough oxygen. Carbon monoxide is toxic when inhaled because it combines with your blood and prevents oxygen from getting to your organs. If a person is exposed to carbon monoxide over a period, it can cause illness and even death. Carbon Monoxide has no smell, taste or colour. This is why it is sometimes called the “Silent Killer”. The most common causes of carbon monoxide poisoning in the home are house fires, faulty heating appliances such as boilers, blocked chimney or flues, and rooms not properly ventilated. Carbon Monoxide alarms can be used as a backup to provide a warning to householders in the event of a dangerous build up of carbon monoxide.

Carbon neutral

A situation that arises when the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air equals the amount of carbon dioxide removed from the air, for example by planting trees, or the amount saved by using renewable energy sources to produce the same amount of energy.

Carbon offset

A unit, equal to one ton of carbon dioxide, that individuals, companies or governments buy to reduce short-term and long-term emissions of greenhouse gases. The payment usually funds projects that generate energy from renewable sources such as wind or flowing water. Individuals can choose whether to buy an offset (for example to compensate for air travel), but governments and large industries are sometimes required to buy them to meet international targets aimed at reducing greenhouse gases.

Carbon tax

A tax on fuels according to their carbon content, which aims to encourage people and businesses to use fuels with less carbon and reduce the amount of energy they use.

Carcinogens

Substances that cause cancer, such as tar.

Carpooling

Sharing a car to a destination to reduce fuel use, pollution and travel costs.

Card Holder

Means the person to whom a general construction induction training card is issued.

Certificate Of Compliance

A document signed by an authorized party affirming that the supplier of a product or service has been tested/analysed/measured/verified to meet the requirements of relevant specifications.

Certification Audits

Audits relating to registration (e.g., ISO 9001 audits).

Characteristic

Distinguishing feature, inherent or assigned, qualitative or quantitative, is classified to: physical, sensory, behavioral, temporal, ergonomic, and functional

Clean up

Treatment, remediation, or destruction of contaminated material.

Climate Change

A regional change in temperature and weather patterns. Current science indicates a discernible link between climate change over the last century and human activity, specifically the burning of fossil fuels.

Chemical Identity

Means a name, in accordance with the nomenclature systems of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry or the Chemical Abstracts Service, or a technical name, that gives a chemical a unique identity.

Company Culture

A system of values, beliefs, and behaviours inherent in a company. To optimise business performance, top management must define and create the necessary culture.

Compensation

An organization’s formal system of wages or salary and other benefits such as insurance, holidays, retirement, vacation, etc.

Competence

Demonstrated personal attributes and demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills

Complaint

Recovery process, process associated with resolving complaints.

Complementary Products

Products that use similar technologies and can coexist in a family of products.

Compliance and Affirmative

Indication or judgment that the supplier of a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract, or regulation; also the state of meeting the requirements.

Component

Any raw material, substance, piece, part, software, firmware, labeling, or assembly which is intended to be included as part of the finished, packaged, and labeled device.

Component Reliability

The propensity for a part to fail over a given time.

Computer-Aided Design

A system for digitally developing product designs.

Computer-Aided Inspection

A system for performing inspection through the use of technology. For example, some systems use infrared to detect defects.

Computer-Aided Testing

Technology for taking tests or examinations.

Computer-Based Training

A form of training that uses specialized software, known as courseware, to address specific topics.

Concession

Permission to use or release a product that does not conform to specified requirements

Confined Space

Means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that:(a) is not designed or intended primarily to be occupied by a person, and (b) is, or is designed or intended to be, at normal atmospheric pressure while any person is in the space, and (c) is or is likely to be a risk to health and safety from: (i) an atmosphere that does not have a safe oxygen level, or (ii) contaminants, including airborne gases, vapours and dusts, that may cause injury from fire or explosion, or (iii) harmful concentrations of any airborne contaminants, or (iv) engulfment, but does not include a mine shaft or the workings of a mine.

Conformity

Fulfillment of a requirement

Consumer Product

Means a thing that: (a) is packed or repacked primarily for use by a household consumer or for use in an office, and (b) if the thing is packed or repacked primarily for use by a household consumer—is packed in the way and quantity in which it is intended to be used by a household consumer, and (c) if the thing is packed or repacked primarily for use in an office is packed in the way and quantity in which it is intended to be used for office work.

Consumer’s risk

The risk of receiving a shipment of poor quality product and believing that it is good quality.

Container

In relation to a hazardous chemical, means anything in or by which a hazardous chemical is, or has been, wholly or partly covered, enclosed or packed, including anything necessary for the container to perform its function as a container.

Contaminant

Means any substance that may be harmful to health or safety.

Contamination

Pollution.

Continual improvement

Recurring activity to increase the ability to fulfill requirements

Contract

Binding agreement

Control measure

Means a measure to eliminate or minimise the risk.

Control of risks

Process of elimination or minimization of risks

Control plan

Documented description of the systems and processes required for controlling product

Correction

Action to eliminate a detected nonconformity for example reworks or regrade

Corrective action

Action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity or other undesirable situation

Crane

Means an appliance intended for raising or lowering a load and moving it horizontally including the supporting structure of the crane and its foundations, but does not include any of the following:

(a) an industrial lift truck,

(b) earthmoving machinery,

(c) an amusement device,

(d) a tractor,

(e) an industrial robot,

(f) a conveyor,

(g) building maintenance equipment,

(h) a suspended scaffold,

(i) a lift.

Current Certificate Of Medical Fitness

Means a certificate of medical fitness that: (a) was issued within the past 12 months, and (b) has not expired or been revoked.

Corrective action

Action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity or other undesirable situation

Customer

Organization or person (consumer, client, end-user, retailer, beneficiary and purchaser) that receives a product

Customer Benefits Package

The package of tangibles and intangibles that make up a service.

Customer Contact

A characteristic of services that notes that customers tend to be more involved in the production of services than they are in manufactured goods.

Customer Co-Production

The participation of a customer in the delivery of a service product. For example, in many restaurants it is not uncommon for customers to fill their own drinks.

Customer Delight

The result of delivering a product or service that exceeds customer expectations.

Customer-Driven Quality

Term that refers to a pro-active approach to satisfying customer needs.

Customer Expectations

(1) what customers expect from a service provider; (2) a part of the servqual questionnaire.

Customer Future Needs

Projection predicting the future needs of customers and designing products that satisfy those needs.

Customer Perceptions

(1) How customers view products or services; (2) The second part of the servqual survey.

Customer Rationalisation

The process of reaching an agreement between marketing and operations as to which customers add the greatest advantage and profits over time.

Customer-Related Ratios

Ratios that include customer satisfaction, customer dissatisfaction, and comparisons of customer satisfaction relative to competitors.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

A view of the customer that asserts that the customer is a valued asset that should be managed.

Customer Retention

The percentage of customers who return to a service provider or continue to purchase a manufactured product.

Customer satisfaction

Customer’s perception of the degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled

Conveyor

Means equipment or apparatus operated by power other than manual power and by which loads are raised, lowered or transported or capable of being raised, lowered, transported, or continuously driven, by:

(a) an endless belt, rope or chain or other similar means, or

(b) buckets, trays or other containers or fittings moved by an endless belt, rope, chain or similar means, or

(c) a rotating screw, or

(d) a vibration or walking beam, or

(e) a powered roller conveyor if the rollers are driven by an endless belt, rope or chain or other similar means, and includes the superstructure, gear and auxiliary equipment used in connection with that equipment or apparatus.

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D

Data

Factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation; often refers to quantitative information.

Demand Side Management (DSM)

An attempt by utilities to reduce customers’ demand for electricity or energy by encouraging efficiency.

Development plan

A public plan that sets out the development objectives and policies of a local authority for its area. It covers a six-year period and states the local authority’s goals for a range of areas such as maintaining and improving roads and parks, preserving and enhancing amenities (such as playgrounds or swimming pools), zoning land for homes, businesses, factories and farming and providing services and facilities such as waste disposal and sewerage. Members of the public have opportunities to make submissions on the plan before it is agreed.

Deduction

An approach to theory development based on modelling.

Defect

Non-fulfillment of a requirement related to an intended or specified use

Dependability

Collective term used to describe the availability performance and its influencing factors: reliability performance, maintainability performance and maintenance support performance

Demolition Work

Means work to demolish or dismantle a structure, or part of a structure that is loadbearing or otherwise related to the physical integrity of the structure, but does not include:

(a) the dismantling of formwork, falsework, or other structures designed or used to provide support, access or containment during construction work, or

(b) the removal of power, light or telecommunication poles.

Design and development

Set of processes that transforms requirements into specified characteristics or into the specification of a product, process or system

Design responsible organization

Organization with authority to establish a new, or change an existing, product specification

Designer

In relation to plant, a substance or a structure

Deviation permit

Permission to depart from the originally specified requirement of a product prior to realization

Diesel

A petroleum-based fuel which is burned in engines ignited by compression rather than spark; commonly used for heavy duty engines including buses and trucks.

Diesel Engine

An internal combustion engine that uses diesel as fuel, producing harmful fumes.

Dioxin

A man-made chemical by-product formed during the manufacturing of other chemicals and during incineration. Studies show that dioxin is the most potent animal carcinogen ever tested, as well as the cause of severe weight loss, liver problems, kidney problems, birth defects, and death.

Document

Information and its supporting medium, such as: record, specification, procedure document, drawing, report, and standard

Dogging Work

(a) the application of slinging techniques, including the selection and inspection of lifting gear, to safely sling a load, or (b) the directing of a plant operator in the movement of a load when the load is out of the operator’s view.

Domestic Charges

Fees paid to local authorities for providing services such as collecting domestic waste.

Domestic Waste

Waste produced within the home, including garden waste.

Draught Proofing

A way to stop heat from escaping a home, for example by sealing window frames and using draught excluders under doors.

Dump Sites

Waste disposal grounds.

Dumping

Disposing of waste illegally by not using bins or official recycling centres, civic amenity sites or landfills.

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E

Effectiveness

Extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved

Efficiency

Relationship between the result achieved and the resources used

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Using computers to share data between customers and suppliers.

Electrical Risk

Means risk to a person of death, shock or other injury caused directly or indirectly by electricity.

Electric Vehicles

Vehicles which use electricity (usually derived from batteries recharged from electrical outlets) as their power source.

Emissions Cap

A limit on the amount of greenhouse gases that a company or country can legally emit.

Endangered Species

Species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range.

Energy Conservation

Using energy efficiently or prudently; saving energy.

Engineering Control

Means a control measure that is physical in nature, including a mechanical device or process.

Essential Services

Means the supply of: (a) gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications, electricity and similar services, or (b) chemicals, fuel and refrigerant in pipes or lines.

Excavation

Means a trench, tunnel or shaft, but does not include:

(a) a mine, or

(b) a bore to which the Water Act 1912 applies, or

(c) a trench for use as a place of interment.

Energy efficiency

Actions to save fuels, for example better building design, changing production processes, developing better transport policies, using better road vehicles and using insulation and double glazing in homes.

Energy rating

A rating given to electrical appliances such as ovens, washing machines, dishwashers and refrigerators according to how much energy they use. Ratings are on a scale from A to G, with A-rated appliances using the least energy and G-rated needing the most. The less energy an appliance uses, the better it is for the environment and the more you will save on your bill.

Energy Star

A voluntary international label that identifies appliances that meet certain standards of energy efficiency. Within the European Union, the label relates to office equipment such as computers and photocopiers.

Environment

surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelation

Environmental aspect

Element of an organization’s activities or products or services that can interact with the environment

Environmental impact

Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s environmental aspects

Environmental management system EMS

Part of an organization’s management system used to develop and implement its environmental policy and manage its environmental aspects

Environmental objective

Overall environmental goal, consistent with the environmental policy, that an organization sets itself to achieve

Environmental performance

Measurable results of an organization’s management of its environmental aspects

Environmental policy

Overall intentions and direction of an organization related to its environmental performance as formally expressed by top management

Environmental target

Detailed performance requirement, applicable to the organization or parts thereof, that arises from the environmental objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve those objectives

Error proofing

Product and manufacturing process design and development to prevent manufacture of nonconforming products

Evaluation

Assessment of how relevant resources and capabilities are to generic strategies in generic internal assessment.

Expert System

A term used to identify systems or software that are developed with “expertise” built in. Presented to users as “ready for use”. Users should seek information by which to judge the underlying assumptions on which the system is designed, the quality of the data used, and whether all relevant factors were included in the design.

External Customers

The ultimate consumers of the goods that an organization produces.

External Events

A term used in fault tree analysis. An external event is an event that is normally expected to occur and thus is not considered a fault when it occurs by itself.

External Failure Costs

(1) These are monetary losses associated with product failure after the customer has possession of the product. These may include warranty or field repair costs. (2) Costs associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service

External Validation

Using benchmarking as a way to ensure that a firm’s current practices are comparable to those being used by benchmark firms.

Extrinsic motivation

Action taken because of external factors, such as pay, bonus, threatened consequences, coercion, etc.

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F

Facilitate

(1) In a group meeting, to serve as a supporter of the meeting process, helping the group move through its agenda to its desired outcome, but not getting personally involved in the meeting content. (2) To “facilitate” efforts means to be help make things happen more readily or effectively.

Facilitation

Helping a team or individual achieve a goal. Often used in meeting or with teams to help the teams achieve their objectives.

Facilitator

The person who performs facilitation. This person may be trained in group dynamics, teamwork, and meeting management methods.

Factory Farming

Large-scale, industrialized agriculture.

Factory Ships

Industrial-style ships used for the large-scale collection and processing of fish.

Fault

In relation to plant, means a break or defect that may cause the plant to present a risk to health and safety.

Fire Risk Hazardous Chemical

Means a hazardous chemical that:

(a) is any of the following:

(i) a flammable gas, (ii) a flammable liquid (hazard category 1 to 3), (iii) a flammable solid, (iv) a substance liable to spontaneous combustion, (v) a substance which, in contact with water, emits flammable gases, (vi) an oxidizing substance, (vii) an organic peroxide, and

(b) burns readily or supports combustion.

Fire Fighting

Spending one’s time solving endless daily problems without improving the process or system that created them.

Forest certification

A process of labeling wood that has been harvested from a well-managed forest.

Fossil Fuel

A fuel, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, produced by the decomposition of ancient (fossilized) plants and animals; compare to alternative energy.

Fuel Poverty

Being unable to heat a home to a safe and comfortable level because of low household income or having to spend more than 10% of household income to heat a home to a comfortable level because the home is not energy efficient.

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G

Gas

Natural gas, used as fuel.

Gasoline

Petroleum fuel, used to power cars, trucks, lawn mowers, etc.

Gap

The difference between desired levels of performance and actual levels of performance.

Gap Analysis

A formal study of the gaps between what exists and what needs, or ought, to exist.

Global warming

Increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface.

Golden Carrot

An incentive program that is designed to transform the market to produce much greater Energy efficiency. The term is a trademark of the Consortium for Energy Efficiency.

Grassroots

Local or person-to-person. A typical grassroots effort might include a door-to-door education and survey campaign.

Greenhouse

A building made with translucent (light transparent, usually glass or fiberglass) walls conducive to plant growth.

Greenhouse effect

The process that raises the temperature of air in the lower atmosphere due to heat trapped by greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and ozone.

Greenhouse gas

A gas involved in the greenhouse effect.

Groundwater

Water below the earth’s surface; the source of water for wells and springs.

Grade

Category or rank given to different quality requirements for products, processes or systems having the same functional use

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H

Hazard

A source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill-health, damage to property, damage to the environment, or a combination of these

Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)

A quality management system for effectively and efficiently ensuring farm to table food safety. HACCP regulations for various sectors are established by the Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration.

Hazard identification

Process of recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics

Hazardous chemical

Means a substance, mixture or article that satisfies the criteria for a hazard class

Hazardous manual task

means a task that requires a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain any person, animal or thing that involves 1 or more of the following:

(a) repetitive or sustained force;

(b) high or sudden force;

(c) repetitive movement;

(d) sustained or awkward posture;

(e) exposure to vibration

Hazardous waste

Waste that poses a risk to human health or the environment and needs to be handled and disposed of carefully. Examples include oil-based paints, car batteries, weed killers, bleach and waste electrical and electronic devices.

Health surveillance

Monitoring of individuals for the purpose of identifying changes in health status that may be due to occupational exposure to a hazard

Hoist

Means an appliance intended for raising or lowering a load or people, and includes an elevating work platform, a mast climbing work platform, personnel and materials hoist, scaffolding hoist and serial hoist, but does not include a lift or building maintenance equipment.

Home Energy Saving Scheme

A scheme operated by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland to provide grants to certain homeowners to improve the energy efficiency of their home.

Household hazards

Dangerous substances or conditions in human dwellings.

Household waste

Waste that contains paper, cardboard, textiles (for example fabric or carpet), timber, food, garden clippings, glass, plastic and other manufactured materials.

Hydropower

Energy or power produced by moving water.

Human Resource Measures

Ratios that are used to measure the effectiveness of a firm’s human resource practices.

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I

Ideal Quality

A reference point identified by Taguchi for determining the quality level of a product or service.

Ignition source

Means a source of energy capable of igniting flammable or combustible substances.

Improvement

The positive effect of a process change effort.

Incident

Any unplanned event resulting in, or having a potential for injury, ill- health, damage or other loss

Incinerator

A furnace that is designed to burn waste at very high temperatures under controlled conditions and is licensed by national regulatory authorities. Most modern and efficient incinerator generate heat and energy from burning waste.

Industrial lift truck

Means powered mobile plant, designed to move goods, materials or equipment that is equipped with an elevating load carriage and is in the normal course of use equipped with a load-holding attachment, but does not include a mobile crane or earthmoving machinery.

Industrial robot

Means plant that is a multifunctional manipulator and its controllers, capable of handling materials, parts or tools, or specialised devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

Information

Meaningful data

Infrastructure

System of facilities, equipment and services needed for the operation of an organization

Inspection

Conformity evaluation by observation and judgment accompanied as appropriate by measurement, testing or gauging

Inspection cost

The cost associated with inspecting a product to ensure it meets the internal or external customer’s needs and requirements; an appraisal cost.

Insulation

In this guide, material such as foam or glass wool that is used in homes and other buildings to prevent heat loss, reduce noise and improve comfort.

Intangible

A characteristic of services that means that services (unlike manufactured goods) cannot be inventoried or carried in stock over a long period of time.

Interested party

Person or group having an interest in the performance or success of an organization, including:

Customers, owners, people in an organization, suppliers, bankers, unions, partners or society

Internal Assessment

The act of searching for strengths and areas for improvement in quality deployment.

Internal Customer

Individuals within the organization that receive the work that other individuals within the same organization do.

Internal Failure Costs

(1) Losses that occur while the product is in possession of the producer. These include rework and scrap costs. (2) Costs associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service.

Internal Validation

Method of studying the quality system to find gaps in quality deployment.

ISO

It means “equal” (Greek). A prefix for a series of standards published by the International Organization for Standardization.

ISO 9000 series

A set of individual, but related, international standards and guidelines on quality management and quality assurance developed to help organizations effectively document the quality system elements to be implemented to maintain an efficient quality system.

ISO 14000 series

A set of individual, but related, international standards and guidelines relevant to developing and sustaining an environmental management system.

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J

Job Analysis

The process of collecting detailed information about a particular job. This information includes tasks, skills, abilities, and knowledge requirements that relate to certain jobs.

Job instruction

Quality system documentation that describes work conducted in one function in a company, such as setup, inspection, rework or operator.

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K

Key performance indicator (KPI)

A statistical measure of how well an organization is doing in a particular area. A KPI could measure a company’s financial performance or how it is holding up against customer requirements.

Key process

A major system level process that supports the mission and satisfies major consumer requirements.

Key product characteristic

A product characteristic that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of product.

Key process characteristic

A process parameter that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of product.

Key results area

Customer requirements that are critical for the organization’s success.

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L

Laboratory

Facility for inspection, test or calibration that may include, but is not limited to, chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical or reliability testing

Laboratory scope

Controlled document containing

– specific tests, evaluations and calibrations that a laboratory is qualified to perform,

– list of the equipment which it uses to perform the above, and

– list of methods and standards to which it performs the above

Lakes

Substantial inland bodies of standing water.

Landfill

Disposal area where garbage is piled up and eventually covered with dirt and topsoil.

Land use

The way in which land is used, especially in farming and city planning.

Law

An act or bill which has become part of the legal code through passage by Congress and approval by the President

Lead

Means lead metal, lead alloys, inorganic lead compounds and lead salts of organic acids.

Lead poisoning

Damaging the body (specifically the brain) by absorbing lead through the skin or by swallowing.

least-cost planning

A process for satisfying consumers’ demands for energy services at the lowest societal cost.

Licensed asbestos assessor

Means a person who holds an asbestos assessor licence.

Licensed asbestos removalist

Means a person conducting a business or undertaking who is licensed under these Regulations to carry out Class A asbestos removal work or Class B asbestos removal work.

licensed asbestos removal work

Means asbestos removal work for which a Class A asbestos removal licence or Class B asbestos removal licence is required.

Lift

means plant that is, or is intended to be, permanently installed in or attached to a structure, in which people, goods or materials may be raised or lowered within a car or cage, or on a platform and the movement of which is restricted by a guide or guides, and includes:

(a) a chairlift, escalator, moving walkway and stairway lift; and

(b) any supporting structure, machinery, equipment, gear, lift well, enclosures and entrances.

Litter

Waste that is thrown away carelessly, mainly made up of plastic, metal, glass, paper or food. Common examples are chewing gum and cigarette butts.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Methodology developed to assess a product’s full environmental costs, from raw material to final disposal.

Light pollution

Environmental pollution consisting of harmful or annoying light.

Low-emission vehicles

Vehicles which emit little air pollution compared to conventional internal combustion engines.

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M

Maintainability

The probability that a given maintenance action for an item under given usage conditions can be performed within a stated time interval when the maintenance is performed under stated conditions using stated procedures and resources.

Major incident hazard

Means a hazard that could cause, or contribute to causing, a major incident.

Management

Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization

Management system

Systemto establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives

Management review

A periodic management meeting to review the status and effectiveness of the organization’s quality management system.

Manufacturing

Process of making or fabricating: production materials, production or service parts, assemblies, or heat treating, welding, painting, plating or other finishing services

Measurement management system

Set of interrelated and interacting elements necessary to achieve metrological confirmation and continual control of measurement processes

Measurement process

Set of operations to determine the value of a quantity

Measuring equipment

Measuring instrument, software, measurement standard, reference material or auxiliary apparatus or combination thereof necessary to realize a measurement process

Metrological characteristic

Distinguishing feature which can influence the results of measurement

Metrological confirmation

Set of operations required to ensure that measuring equipment conforms to the requirements for its intended use

Metrological function

Function with administrative and technical responsibility for defining and implementing the measurement management system

Mobile crane

Means a crane capable of travelling over a supporting surface without the need for fixed runways and relying only on gravity for stability.

Musculoskeletal disorder

Means an injury to, or disease of, the musculoskeletal system, whether occurring suddenly or over time, but does not include an injury caused by crushing, entrapment or cutting resulting principally from the mechanical operation of plant.

Municipal waste

Waste produced in urban areas, mainly made up of household waste but also some small commercial waste that is similar to household waste.

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N

NATA

Means the National Association of Testing Authorities.

NATA-accredited laboratory

Means a testing laboratory accredited by NATA, or recognised by NATA either solely or with someone else.

Naturally occurring asbestos

Means the natural geological occurrence of asbestos minerals found in association with geological deposits including rock, sediment or soil.

Near Miss

Any event that could have resulted in an accident or any set of conditions or circumstances that have the potential to cause an accident to occur

Nonconforming record (NCR)

A permanent record—made in writing—for accounting and preserving the knowledge of a nonconforming condition for the purposes of documenting facts or events.

Nonconformity

Non-fulfillment of a requirement

Non-friable asbestos

Means material containing asbestos that is not friable asbestos, including material containing asbestos fibres reinforced with a bonding compound.

Noise pollution

Environmental pollution made up of harmful or annoying noise.

Nuclear energy

Energy or power produced by nuclear reactions

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O

Objective evidence

Data supporting the existence or verity of something, which may be obtained through observation, measurement, test, or other means

Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS)

That part of the overall management system which includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the OHS policy, and so managing the risks associated with the business of the organization

Occupational health and safety objectives

Overall OHS goal in terms of OHS performance, arising from the occupational health and safety policy that an organization sets itself to achieve, and which are quantified where practicable

Occupational health and safety performance

The measurable results of the OHSMS, related to the organization’s control of health and safety risks, based on its OHS policy, objectives and targets. Performance measurement includes measurement of OHS management activities and results

Occupational health and safety policy

Statement by the organization of its commitment, intentions and principles in relation to its overall occupational health and safety performance which provides a framework for action and for the setting of its occupational health and safety objectives and targets

Occupational health and safety professional

A person with expertise and qualifications in the identification, assessment, evaluation or control of occupational hazards and risks, and hazards associated with occupational ill-health

Occupational health and safety target

A detailed performance requirement, quantified wherever practicable and pertaining to the organization, that arises from the health and safety objectives and that needs to be met in order to achieve those objectives

Oil spill

The harmful release of oil into the environment, usually through water, which is very difficult to clean up and often kills birds, fish and other wildlife.

Organisation

Group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships

Organisational Structure

Arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships between people

Organic food

Plants and animals that are grown or reared without the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides or hormones.

Organic

In this guide, matter from living, or once-living, things.

Operational Auditing

Modern auditing practices that focus on operational efficiencies

Operator protective device

Includes a roll-over protective structure, falling object protective structure, operator restraining device and seat belt.

Out-of-control process

A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is not in a state of statistical control. In other words, the variations among the observed sampling results cannot be attributed to a constant system of chance causes.

Ozone

A naturally occurring, highly reactive gas comprising triatomic oxygen formed by recombination of oxygen in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. This naturally occurring gas builds up in the lower atmosphere as smog pollution, while in the upper atmosphere it forms a protective layer which shields the earth and its inhabitants from excessive exposure to damaging ultraviolet radiation.

Ozone depletion

The reduction of the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere by chemical pollution.

Ozone hole

A hole or gap in the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere.

Ozone layer

The thin protective layer of gas 10 to 50km above the Earth that acts as a filter for ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. High UV levels can lead to skin cancer and cataracts and affect the growth of plants.

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P

Particulate matter

Fine solid or liquid particles that pollute the air and are added to the atmosphere by natural and man-made processes at the Earth’s surface. Examples of particulate matter include dust, smoke, soot, pollen and soil particles.

Pay by weight

A system in which the amount you pay for bin collections depends on the amount of waste you throw away. The more waste you reduce, reuse, recycle or compost, the less you pay for waste disposal.

Permits

In the context of waste, certificates or other documents granted by local authorities to private companies to collect and manage waste or to operate waste management facilities such as recycling centres.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Means anything used or worn by a person to minimise risk to the person’s health and safety, including air supplied respiratory equipment.

Placard

Means a sign or notice:

(a) displayed or intended for display in a prominent place, or next to a container or storage area for hazardous chemicals at a workplace; and

(b) that contains information about the hazardous chemical stored in the container or storage area.

Plastic bag levy

An environmental tax that customers must pay when they accept a plastic or laminated bag from a retailer. There is no tax on small bags, such as those for fresh meat or loose fruit and vegetables. Money raised from the tax is put into a special fund that is used to protect the environment.

Policy

An overarching plan (direction) for achieving an organization’s goals.

Post-consumer waste

Waste collected after a consumer has disposed of it, for example sweet wrappers or packaging from small electronic goods such as mobile phones or MP3 players.

Pressure equipment

Means boilers, pressure vessels and pressure piping.

Predictive maintenance

Activities based on process data aimed at the avoidance of maintenance problems by prediction of likely failure modes

Premium freight

Extra costs or charges incurred additional to contracted delivery, caused by method, quantity, unscheduled or late deliveries

Preventive action

Action to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity or other undesirable potential situation

Preventive maintenance

Planned action to eliminate causes of equipment failure and unscheduled interruptions to production, as an output of the manufacturing process design

Prevention of pollution

Use of processes, practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts

Problem solving

The act of defining a problem; determining the cause of the problem; identifying, prioritizing and selecting alternatives for a solution; and implementing a solution.

Procedure

Specified way to carry out an activity or a process

Process

Set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs

Process control

The method for keeping a process within boundaries; the act of minimizing the variation of a process.

Process flow diagram

A depiction of the flow of materials through a process, including any rework or repair operations; also called a process flow chart.

Process improvement

The application of the plan-do-check-act cycle to processes to produce positive improvement and better meet the needs and expectations of customers.

Process improvement team

A structured group often made up of cross functional members who work together to improve a process or processes.

Process management

The pertinent techniques and tools applied to a process to implement and improve process effectiveness, hold the gains and ensure process integrity in fulfilling customer requirements.

Process owner

The person who coordinates the various functions and work activities at all levels of a process, has the authority or ability to make changes in the process as required and manages the entire process cycle to ensure performance effectiveness.

Product

Result of a process, categorized to:

– services (e.g. transport);

– software (e.g. computer program, dictionary);

– hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part);

– Processed materials (e.g. lubricant).

Product identifier

Means the name or number used to identify a product on a label or in a safety data sheet.

Production part approval process (PPAP)

A Big Three automotive process that defines the generic requirements for approval of production parts, including production and bulk materials. Its purpose is to determine during an actual production run at the quoted production rates whether all customer engineering design record and specification requirements are properly understood by the supplier and that the process has the potential to produce product consistently meeting these requirements.

Product warranty

An organization’s stated policy that it will replace, repair or reimburse a buyer for a product if a product defect occurs under certain conditions and within a stated period of time.

Productivity

A measurement of output for a given amount of input.

Project

Unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the constraints of time, cost and resources

Public health

The health or physical well-being of a whole community.

Public land

Land owned in common by all, represented by the government (town, county, state, or federal).

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Q

Qualification process

Process to demonstrate the ability to fulfill specified requirements, concerns persons, products, processes or systems.

Quality

Degree to which a set of inherent (permanent, not assigned) characteristics fulfils requirements

Quality assurance

Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled

Quality circle

A quality improvement or self-improvement study group composed of a small number of employees (10 or fewer) and their supervisor. Quality circles originated in Japan, where they are called quality control circles.

Quality control

Part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements

Quality engineering

The analysis of a manufacturing system at all stages to maximize the quality of the process itself and the products it produces.

Quality improvement

Part of quality management focused on increasing the ability to fulfill quality requirements

Quality management

Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality

Quality management system

Management system to direct and control an organization with regard to quality

Quality manual

Document specifying the quality management system of an organization

Quality objective

Something sought, or aimed for, related to quality

Quality plan

Document specifying which procedure and associated resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project, product, process or contract

Quality planning

Part of quality management focused on setting quality objectives and specifying necessary operational processes and related resources to fulfill the quality objectives, including establishing quality plans

Quality policy

Overall intentions and direction of an organization related to quality as formally expressed by top management

Quality characteristic

Inherent characteristic of a product, process or system related to a requirement

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R

Radioactivity

The spontaneous emission of matter or energy from the nucleus of an unstable atom (the emitted matter or energy is usually in the form of alpha or beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons).

Radon

A cancer-causing radioactive gas found in many communities’ ground water.

Rainforest

A large, dense forest in a hot, humid region (tropical or subtropical). Rainforests have an abundance of diverse plant and animal life, much of which is still uncatalogued by the scientific community.

Random sampling

A commonly used sampling technique in which sample units are selected so all combinations of n units under consideration have an equal chance of being selected as the sample.

Record

Document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed

Recycle

To break waste items down into their raw materials, which are then used to re-make the original item or make new items.

Recycling

System of collecting, sorting, and reprocessing old material into usable raw materials.

Registration

The act of including an organization, product, service or process in a compilation of those having the same or similar attributes.

Re-grade

Alteration of the grade of a nonconforming product in order to make it conform to requirements differing from the initial ones

Release

Permission to proceed to the next stage of a process

Remote location

Location that supports sites and at which non-production processes occur

Repair

Action on a nonconforming product to make it acceptable for the intended use

Requirement

Need or expectation that is stated, generally implied (custom or common practice) or obligatory

Review

Activity undertaken to determine the suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the subject matter to achieve established objectives, such as: management review, design and development review, review of customer requirements and nonconformity review

Rework

Action on a nonconforming product to make it conform to the requirements

Risk

Likelihood and consequence of that injury or harm occurring

Risk assessment

Process of estimating the magnitude of risk and deciding what actions will be taken

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S

Safety

A state in which the risk of harm (to persons) or damage is limited to an acceptable level

Scaffold

Means a temporary structure specifically erected to support access or working platforms.

Scaffolding work

Means erecting, altering or dismantling a temporary structure that is or has been erected to support a platform and from which a person or object could fall more than 4 metres from the platform or the structure.

Scrap

Action on a nonconforming product to preclude its originally intended use

Site

Location at which value-added manufacturing processes occur

Smog

Air pollution consisting of smoke and fog, which occurs in large urban and industrial areas and is mainly caused by the action of sunlight on burned fuels, mostly from car exhausts. Smog can cause eye irritations and breathing problems and damage plant life.

Smokeless fuel

Solid fuel, such as charcoal, that does not release smoke when it is burned.

Solar panel

A panel fixed to the roof of a building that uses special cells to collect energy from the sun and convert it to electricity to heat the building and/or power the lights, appliances or equipment.

Solid waste

non-liquid, non gaseous category of waste from non-toxic household and commercial sources.

Special characteristic

Product characteristic or manufacturing process parameter which can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of product

Specification

Document stating requirements

Supplier

Organization or person (producer, distributor, retailer or vendor of a product, or provider of a service or information) that provides a product, also is called “contractor” in contractual situation

Surrounding area

In relation to a facility, means the area surrounding the facility in which the health and safety of persons could potentially be adversely affected by a major incident occurring.

Surface water

Water that is collected on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, wetland or ocean

Sustainable development

Development using land or energy sources in a way that meets the needs of people today without reducing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

System

Set of interrelated or interacting elements

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T

Technical expert

Person who provides specific knowledge of or expertise on the subject to audit team, but does not act as an auditor in the audit team

Temporary work platform

Means:

(a) a fixed, mobile or suspended scaffold; or

(b) an elevating work platform; or

(c) a mast climbing work platform; or

(d) a work box supported by a crane, hoist, forklift truck or other form of mechanical plant; or

(e) building maintenance equipment, including a building maintenance unit; or

(f) a portable or mobile fabricated platform; or

(g) any other temporary platform that:

(i) provides a working area; and

(ii) is designed to prevent a fall.

Test

Determination of one or more characteristics according to a procedure

Top management

Person or group of people who direct and control an organization at the highest level

Toxic

Poisonous or harmful to the body (ecotoxic relates to damage to the environment).

Toxin

A poisonous substance that can either be natural (produced by plants, animals or bacteria) or manufactured.

Traffic calming, traffic management

Policies, rules or actions by a local authority designed to reduce traffic speed or limit the amount of traffic in an area at certain times of day.

Transportation

Any means of conveying goods and people.

Transportation planning

Systems to improve the efficiency of the transportation system in order to enhance human access to goods and services.

Trash

Waste material that cannot be recycled and reused (synonymous with garbage).

Traceability

Ability to trace the history, application or location of that which is under consideration

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U

Utility (public)

A company that provides the public with essentials such as electricity or water.

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V

Validation

Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled, the use conditions for validation can be real or simulated

Verification

Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that specified requirements have been fulfilled

Ventilation

In this guide, the movement of air between the inside and outside of a building usually through windows, doors and air vents built into the building’s walls or ceilings

Voice of Customer (VOC)

The expressed requirements and expectations of customers relative to products or services, as documented and disseminated to the providing organization’s members.

Voluntary standard

A standard that imposes no inherent obligation regarding its use.

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W

Waste

Garbage, trash.

Waste site

Dumping ground.

Waste stream

overall waste disposal cycle for a given population.

Waste management

The management of waste collection, handling, processing, storage and transport from where it is produced to where it is finally disposed.

Waste prevention

An aspect of waste management that involves reducing the amount of waste we produce and minimising the potential harm to human health or the environment from packaging or ingredients in products.

Waterborne contaminants

Unhealthy chemicals, microorganisms (like bacteria) or radiation, found in tap water.

Water filters

Substances (such as charcoal) or fine membrane structures used to remove impurities from water.

Water quality

The level of purity of water; the safety or purity of drinking water.

Water quality testing

Monitoring water for various contaminants to make sure it is safe for fish protection, drinking, and swimming.

Watershed

A region or area over which water flows into a particular lake, reservoir, stream, or river.

Work environment

Set of conditions under which work is performed

World-class quality

A term used to indicate a standard of excellence: best of the best.

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X

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Y

Yield

The ratio of good to number of units produced by a process.

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Z

Zero defects

A performance standard and method Philip B. Crosby developed; states that if people commit themselves to watching details and avoiding errors, they can move closer to the goal of zero defects

Zero emissions

An engine, motor or other energy source that does not produce any gas or release any harmful gases directly into the environment.

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